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gsimoneau17
10-13-2000, 01:46 AM
Dear list members. Here is the summary of the answers that I
received from my posting a few days ago.

I would like to personally thank the following people for their help:
Chris Kirtley, Luisa Monti, Ben Stansfield, Paul Devita, Kenton
Kaufman, Taija Finni, Belinda Beck, and Hermann Schwameder.

This is the list of what I have compiled to date. Realize that this
is only a small sample (but hopefully representative) of the
available body of literature. Below this summary are the full
references used for the table as well as additional references where
more data can be found. In addition, some of the individuals listed
above are currently doing some nice work (soon to be published) in
this area. A comprehensive review of the literature on this topic
will require a lot more work. But this table should be a good
starting point.

I hope this information will be useful to other readers. Feel free
to forward additional information to me if you wish. I will continue
to build this data set as time allows.

Regards, Guy

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Forces applied to the lower extremity structures during ambulation.
Structure (type of force) walking speed (m/s)
Authors Value (BW)
Ankle
Talocrural joint (peak contact force) 1.4
Simonsen et al (1995) 4.2
Talocrural joint (peak contact force) 114*
Collins (1995) 4.8
Talocrural joint (peak anterior shearÝ) 116* Stauffer
et al. (1977) 0.6
Talocrural joint (peak posterior shearÝ) 116* Stauffer
et al. (1977) 0.3
Achilles tendon (peak tension) 1.5 Finni et
al. (1998) 2.0
Achilles tendon (peak tension) 1.7 Finni et
al. (1999) 4.0
Ankle dorsiflexors (peak tension) 114*
Collins (1995) 1.0
Knee
Tibiofemoral joint (peak contact force) 1.4 Simonsen et al (1995) 4.6
Tibiofemoral joint (peak contact force) 114* Collins (1995) 5.0
Patellofemoral joint (peak contact force) ý Reilly and
Martens (1972) 0.5
Patellofemoral joint (peak contact force) 1.0 Komistek et
al. (1998) 0.3
Patellofemoral joint (peak contact force) ? Kuster et
al. (1993) 1.5
Patellofemoral joint (peak contact force) ? Taylor et
al. (1998) 0.8
Anterior cruciate ligament (peak tension) 114* Collins
(1995) 1.5
Posterior cruciate ligament (peak tension) 114* Collins
(1995) 0.4
Patellar tendon (peak tension) 1.7 Finni et al. (1999) 3.0
Hamstrings (peak tension) 114* Collins
(1995) 1.1
Hip
Hip joint (peak contact force) 1.4 Simonsen
et al (1995) 6.4
Hip joint (peak contact force) 0.9 Pedersen
et al. (1997) 3.1
Hip joint (peak contact force) 114* Collins
(1995) 3.8
Adductor magnus (peak tension) 0.9 Pedersen
et al. (1997) 0.3
Psoas (peak tension) 0.9 Pedersen
et al. (1997) 0.1
Gluteus medius (peak tension) 0.9 Pedersen
et al. (1997) 0.5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ý direction of shear of tibia on talus *steps/minute, ý normal walking speed

Kuster et al (1994) Downhill walking (19% gradient) knee compression 7-8.5BW
Kuster et al (1994) Downhill walking (19% gradient) knee shear 1.2-1.7BW

Scott and Winter (1990) running 4.2 m/s achilles tendon 7BW
Scott and Winter (1990) running 4.2 m/s PFJ compression 9BW
Scott and Winter (1990) running 4.2 m/s ankle compression 12BW
Scott and Winter (1990) running 4.2 m/s patellar tendon 5.8BW
Scott and Winter (1990) running 4.2 m/s plantar fascia 2.1BW

Schwameder (2000) personal Communication knee shear 0.7BW
Schwameder (2000) personal Communication PFJ compression 2BW
Schwameder (2000) personal Communication Patellar tendon 2BW

Pederson DR, Brand RA, Davy DT. Pelvic muscle and acetabular contact
forces during gait J Biomechanics 30(9):959-965, 1997

Collins JJ The redundant nature of locomotor optimization laws. J
Biomechanics 28(3):251-267, 1995

Finni T, Lepola V, Komi PV Tendomuscular loading in normal locomotion
conditions. p. 47-48, In: Limiting Factors of Human Neuromuscular
Performance. Kyrolainen H, Avela J, Takala T (eds). 1999 University
of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland

Stauffer RN, Chao EYS, Brewster RC Force and motion analysis of the
normal, diseased and prosthetic ankle joint. Clin Orthop 127
189-196, 1977

Finni T, Komi PV, Lukkariniemi J. Achilles tendon loading during
walking: application of a novel optic fiber technique European
Journal of Applied Physiology & Occupational Physiology.
77(3):289-291, 1998

Scott SH Winter DA Internal forces of chronic running injury sites.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 22(3):357-369, 1990

Komistek RD, Stiehl JB, Dennis DA, Paxson RD, Soutas-Little RW.
Mathematical model of the lower extremity joint reaction forces using
Kane's method of dynamics. J Biomechanics 31(2) 1998 185-189

Kuster M, Wood GA, Sakurai S, Blatter G Stress on the femoropatellar
joint in downhill walking-a biomechanical study. Zeitschrift fur
Unfallchirurgie und Versicherungsmedizin 86(3):178-183, 1993.

Taylor SJ, Walker PS, Perry JS, Cannon SR Woledge R. The forces in
the distal femur and the knee during walking and other activities
measured by telemetry. Journal of Arthroplasty 13(4):428-437, 1998

Additional references
------------------------
sport refs from Ewald Hennig:
http://www.uni-essen.de/~qpd800/sports.html

also Georg Bergmann's hip implant trasnducer-measured forces:
http://www.medizin.fu-berlin.de/biomechanik/Reship1e.htm

-------------------------------
Rydell NW. Forces acting on the femoral head prostheses. Acta Orthop Scand
1966;96-125, Munksgaard, Copenhagen

Bergmann G, Graichen F, Rohlmann A Is staircase walking a risk for the
fixation of hip implants? J Biomech 1995;28:535-553

------------------------

Collins, J. The redundant nature of locomotor optimization laws. J
Biomech. 28, 251-267, 1995.

Glitsch, U. & Bauman, W. The three dimensional determination of internal
loads in the lower extremity. J Biomech. 30,1123-1131, 1997.

Hardt, D. Determining muscle forces in the leg during normal human
walking - an application and evaluation of optimization methods. J Biomech
Eng. 100, 72-78, 1978. 38.

Pedotti, A., Krishnan, V. & Stark, L. Optimization of muscle force
sequencing in human locomotion. Math Biosci. 38, 57-76, 1978.

Seirig, A. & Arvikar, A. A methematical model for evaluation of forces in
the lower extremities of the musculoskeletal system. J Biomech. 6, 313-326,
1973.

---------------------
Kaufman
KR, An KN, Litchy WJ, Morrey BF, Chao EYS. Dynamic joint forces during knee
isokinetic exercise. Am J Sports Med, 19(3):305-316, 1991".
----------------------

Komi, Fukashiro & Järvinen (1992, Clinics in Sport Medicine, vol 11, 3, p.
521-531) Biomechanical loading of Achilles tendon during normal locomotion.

Komi (1990) Relevance of in vivo force measurements to human
biomechanics. J Biomechanics 23, Suppl 1, pp. 23-34.

Finni,
Lepola, Komi, 1999. Tendomuscular loading in normal locomotion conditions.
In Kyröläinen, Avela, Takala (ed.) Limiting Factors of Human Neuromuscular
Performance, University of Jyväskylä, Finland)
---------------------------

Burr, D. B., Milgrom, C., Fyhrie, D., Forwood, M., Nyska, M., Finestone,
A., Hoshaw, S., Saiag, E., Simkin, A. 1996 In vivo measurement of human
tibial strains during vigorous activity. BONE 18(5):405-416

Lanyon, L. E., Hampson, W. G. J., Goodship, A. E., Shah, J. S., 1975, Bone
deformation recorded in vivo from strain gauges attached to the human
tibial shaft. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, 46:256-268.


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************************************************** ******************
Guy G. Simoneau, Ph.D., P.T., A.T.C.
Associate Professor, Physical Therapy Department
Marquette University
Walter Schroeder Complex, Room 346
P.O. Box 1881
Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881

e-mail: guy.simoneau@marquette.edu
Phone: 414-288-3380
Fax: 414-288-5987
************************************************** ******************

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