View Full Version : Summary: Grip Forces

Glazier, Paul
12-05-2000, 02:53 AM
Dear All,

Thanks for the vast number of responses for my measurement of grip forces in
cricket batting enquiry. Some 26 references were highlighted, as well as
technical information from related companies (see below).

Thanks again,
Paul Glazier


Arai, T., Chomabayashi, T. and Momiyama, T. (1995). Compare overstrain
golf-swing and relaxed golf-swing: relation grip pressure and clubhead speed
for driver shots. In Proceedings of the FISU/CESU Conference (edited by
Arai, T.), pp. 362-363. Japan: Fukuoka.

Budney, D.R. (1979). Measuring grip pressure during the golf swing. Research
Quarterly, 50, 272-277.

Budney, D.R. and Bellow, D.G. (1990). Evaluation of golf club control by
grip pressure measurement. In Science and Golf: Proceedings of the First
World Scientific Congress of Golf (edited by A.J. Cochran), pp. 30-35.
London: E&FN Spon.

Chadwick, E.K.J. and Nicol, A.C. (2000) A novel force transducer for the
measurement of grip force. Journal of Biomechanics, in press.

Chadwick, E.K.J., Nicol, A.C., Floyd, S. and Gray, T.G.F. (2000). A
telemetry-based device to determine the force-displacement behaviour of
materials in high impact loading situations. Journal of Biomechanics, 33,

Chadwick, E.K.J. and Nicol, A.C. (1996). Hand grip forces during activities
of daily living and light industrial duties. In Proceedings of the Xth
European Society of Biomechanics Conference (edited by J. Vander Sloten),
pp. 222. Leuven: European Society of Biomechanics.

Cole, K.J. (1991). Grasp force control in older adults. Journal of Motor
Behavior, 24, 251-258.

Cole, K.J and Beck, C.L. (1994). The stability of precision grip force in
older adults. Journal of Motor Behavior, 26, 171-177.

Eggeman, G. and L. Noble. (1982) Measurement system for the determination of
hand grip forces during a baseball bat swing. American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, Manuscript #82-Det-49, September.

Eggeman, G. and L. Noble. (1982) Baseball bat instrumentation for the
measurement of hand forces. Journal of Biomechanics, November.

Elliott, B.C. (1982). Tennis: the influence of grip tightness on reaction
impulse and rebound velocity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,
14, 348-352.

Fowler, N.K. & Nicol, A.C. (1999). Measurement of external three-dimensional
interphalangeal loads applied during activities of daily living. Clinical
Biomechanics, 14, 646-652.

Fowler, N.K. & Nicol, A.C. (1999). A force transducer to measure individual
finger loads during activities of daily living. Journal of Biomechanics, 32,

Hatze, H. (1992). The effectiveness of grip bands in reducing racquet
vibration transfer and slipping. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 24, 226-230.

Hatze, H. (1976). Forces and duration of impact, and grip tightness during
the tennis stroke. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8, 88-95.

Knudson, D.V, & White, S.C. (1989). Forces on the hand in the tennis
forehand drive: Application of force sensing resistors. International
Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 5, 324-331.

Knudson, D. V. (1989). Hand forces and impact effectiveness in the tennis
forehand. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 17, 1-7.

Knudson, D.V. (1991). Forces on the hand in the tennis one-handed backhand.
International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 7, 282-292.

Knudson, D. (1991). Factors affecting force loading on the hand in the
tennis forehand. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31,

Martin, P.E., & Heise, G.D. (1992). Archery bow grip force distribution:
Relationships with performance and fatigue. International Journal of Sport
Biomechanics, 8, 305-319.

Miles, A.W. & Tanner, K.E. (1992). Strain Measurement in Biomechanics.
London: Chapman & Hall.

Newell, K.M and McDonald, P.V. (1994). Information, co-ordination modes and
control in a prehensile force task. Human Movement Science, 13, 375-391.

Richards, J., Farrell, M., Kent, J. and Kraft, R. (1985). Weight transfer
patterns during the golf swing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
56, 361-365.

Stretch, R.A. (1995). A biomechanical analysis of the double-handed grip
forces. In Science and Racket Sports (edited by T. Reilly, M.Hughes and A.
Lees), pp. 107-112. London: E & FN Spon.

Stretch, R.A., Buys, F.J. and Viljoen, G. (1995). The kinetics of the drive
off the front foot in cricket batting: hand grip force. S.A. Journal for
Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 18, 83-93.

Yun, M.H., Kotani, K., & Ellis, D. (1992). Using force sensitive resistors
to evaluate hand tool grip design. Proceedings of the Human Factors
Society, 36th Annual Meeting. pp. 806-810.

The company I run the office in the UK for is novel, one of the leaders in
dynamic pressure distribution measurements. A similar application to the one

you describe has been made years ago for measuring the forces acting on the
grip of a tennis racket, and consists in a sensor pad with 256 capacitive
sensors ordered as a 16x16 matrix, with a density of 1.6 sensors/cm² for a
total pad area of 125x125 mm. (See attachment for more details). More
information about pressure distribution can be found at www.novel.de.

As far as references related to this kind of measurement are concerned, I
recommend to contact Prof. Ewald Hennig in Germany at the following address:

University of Essen
Biomechanic Laboratory
Fachbereich II
Henri - Dunant Strasse 65
45131 Essen
Fax: +49 (0) 201 183 7309

I hope this can bring your work forward, and if you need further information

please do not hesitate to contact me again.


Gabriella Atzori

Please look into our web site regarding the HGD/PFD project and devices.
If you find it interesting for your application, please do not hesitate to
contact me for further details.
Best regards.

Alessandro Donati
P.zza 185 R.A. Folgore, 2/3
57128 Livorno
Tel. +39-0586-876.111
Fax +39-0586-876.208
E-mail : a.donati@kayser.it

Have a look at the flexi force sensors from Tekscan


As for the impact force try a balistic pendulum.

We have done a lot of work on impact if you want to pop down the



Dr. Paul O'Callaghan
Medical Engineering
Cardiff University
PO Box 685 The Parade
Queens Buildings
CF24 3TA

Tel: (0)2920 874533
Fax: (0)2920 874533

To unsubscribe send SIGNOFF BIOMCH-L to LISTSERV@nic.surfnet.nl
For information and archives: http://isb.ri.ccf.org/biomch-l