View Full Version : Summary:cross education

Justin Keogh
03-01-2001, 04:38 PM
Dear List,

Thanks to all who replied to my question regrading the ability of
cross education to occur in motor tasks in addition to strength and
muscular endurance. While not all my questions have been
answered, your help has been invaluable.

In addition to cross education, other terms have been proposed
inclusing bilateral transfer and effector independence, and this may
make our job more difficult in finding all the information about this

Below is the summary of the replies i recieved.

Hi Justin,

I am a PhD student at University of Southern Cal. in the
department of
Biokinesiology. The following articles are from a motor control,
than a biomechanics, perspective. Let me know if they are helpful.
1. Steenbergen, et al. (1996). Exp Brain Res 110:91-98
2. I only have the author for this one:
Cohen (bipedal coord in stroke) Affected limb enhanced and
drawn toward affected.
3.Franz, et al. (1996) Phychological Science 7 (5): 306-310. This is
spatial and temporal coupling in bimanual movements callosotomy
patients. I
think this is an excellent study.

Good Luck,
Kathleen Ganley

Dear Justin:

In motor learning parlance, the phenomenon to which you refer
is commonly termed "bilateral transfer of learning". You might
try that phrase in your searches. I know there has been some
recent work on that topic but I don't have the references at my
fiungertips. You might also check recent motor behavior texts
by R.A. Schmidt and T. Lee, R.A. Magill, D. Rose, and C.
Shea et al. for references. Finally, much of this type of work
is published in the Journal of Motor Behavior, Human Movement
Science, and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.

Good luck!

Chuck Walter


I am a Ph.D. student in motor learning at Texas A&M University.
There has been some research in our lab concerning transfer of
force production between limbs and transfer between biceps and
triceps of the same limb. Some of the results are in press, but I
don't think any have been published yet. In brief, relative force (i.e.
relative force of two consecutive pulses) is transferred, but absolute
force (correct amount of force) is not. Similar results have been
found with dynamic elbow flexion-extension. This work has been
done by Charles Shea. His email is cshea@tamu.edu.

Charles Black

Consult the review by Zhou in Exercise and Sports Science
28:177-184, 2000.

Tibor Hortobágyi, Ph.D.

I am only vaguely aware that there has been some research done
on this
phenomenon in the U.S. Some people also refer to this as a type
entrainment. If you search under "entrainment" only a small
portion will
address what you are seeking.

I believe Moshe Feldenkrais did some fairly scientific research on
topic. Unfortunately, Feldenkrais' work was embraced by the
heath community more than the medical community, which simply
means it will
be difficult to find much in refereed journals. It may, however,
you with enough to create a bridge from the 1930's to the present.

Good Luck,

Richard Johnson
Graduate Student
University of Arkansas

Justin Keogh BHMS (Hons)
PhD Candidate
Griffith University, Gold Coast
School of Physiotherapy & Exercise Science
07 5552 8390 (W) 0419 714 921 (M)
07 5552 8674 (Fax)

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