View Full Version : Summary: Dynamic Elbow Parameters

Karyn Weiss-bundy
05-03-2001, 07:48 AM
Dear BIOMCH-L Subscribers:

Two weeks ago I requested help finding the following information for the
human elbow joint complex:

1. 3D origin and insertion coordinates for all muscles crossing/controlling
the joint.
2. 3D coordinates of the elbow joint center of rotation as it varies with
flexion-extension angle (an equation defining this relationship over the
full joint range of motion is the goal).
3. 3D moment arms for all the muscles crossing the joint as they vary with
flexion-extension and pronation-supination angles (again, an equation
defining these relationships over the full joint rom is the goal).
4. Any scaling factors to proportion the above factors and also muscle line
of action to subject dimensions.

Thank-you very much to all those who replied, individual responses follow.

Karyn Weiss-Bundy
Biomechanical Engineering
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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From: Pascale Pigeon

Regarding your item 3., you might want to take a look at one of my papers:
Pigeon P., Yahia L'H., Feldman A.G. (1996) Moment arms and lengths of
human upper limb muscles as functions of joint angles. J. Biomechanics,
Vol. 29, No. 10, 1365-1370.

Another recent paper that might help you is:
Murray W.M., Buchanan T.S., Delp,S.L. (2000) The isometric functional
capacity of muscles that cross the elbow. J. Biomechanics, Vol. 33, 943-952.

As for item 1., I would recommend you take a look at this book (referenced
in the above paper):
Seireg A. and Arvikar R. (1989) Biomechanical Analysis of the
Musculoskeletal Structure for Medicine and Sports, Hemisphere Publishing
Corporation, New York.
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From: Bing Yu

You may want to read
Veeger, D.J., Yu, B., An, K.N., and Rozendal, R.H. (1997) Geometry
parameters for musculoskeletal modeling of the arm. Journal of
Biomechanics, 30(6): 647-652.
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From: Lisa Leonard

I think the reason why you are struggling is that alot of the information
you are after is not available! I have been doing similar things recently
for the wrist and have had similar frustrations! The
origins/insertions/moment arms (static) are relatively well described in
anatomical texts. Brand has done a great deal of work in this area eg
Relative tension and potential excursion of muscles in the forearm and
hand, Brand PW, Beach RB, Thompson DE, Journal Hand Surgery (American) 1981
6(3), 209-219. Much of the forearm data is also presented in his book
Clinical Mechanics of the Hand, Brand PW and Hollister AM, 1999 Mosby.
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From: Dr. Jack P. Callaghan

You should have a look at:
Winters,J.M. and Woo,S.L.-Y. Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and
movement organization, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
The appendix by Yamaguchi et al (pps 717-773) has a wealth of data on 3d
origin & insertion sites as well as other muscle parameters.
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From: Scott Delp

Wendy Murray, Tom Buchanan and I developed a model of the elbow that may be
helpful to you. A preliminary version of the model was published in:
Murray, W.A., Delp, S.L., Buchanan, T.S. Variation of muscle moment arms
with elbow and forearm position. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 28, pp.
5-13-525, 1994.

Descriptions of muscle parameters are published in
Murray, W.M., Buchanan, T.S., Delp, S.L. The isometric functional
capacity of elbow muscles. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 33, pp. 943-952, 2000.

A paper on scaling of muscle moment arms is in review at the J.
Biomechanics. This paper has moment arms for a large range of subject
sizes. You can get additional information and download reprints from:
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From: Patrick McCrea

You may get something from looking at the following site:
There is anthropomorphic data there as well as a 1d muscle modeling
simulation that can be run in Matlab. I would also recommend the new book
from Crago and Winters: Biomechanics and Neural Control of Posture and
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From: Steve Piazza

I suggest that you contact Dr. Wendy Murray at the Palo Alto VA. She has
done a lot of elbow modeling and has also studied scaling issues, some of
which I am sure you have come across in your lit search.
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From: Daniel Magnusson

I suggest that you contact Frans van der Helm. He has completed extensive
work modelling the upper extremity.
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From: Vaughan Kippers

This may be of some help.
Ettema, G.J.C., Styles, G. and Kippers, V. (1998) The moment arms of 23
muscle segments of the upper limb with varying elbow and forearm positions:
Implications for motor control. Human Movement Science 17(2):201-220.
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From: "Dirk Jan Veeger"

A couple of years ago, we measured five shoulders and arms (including the
elbows). This implies that we have the origins and insertions for Triceps,
anconeus, brachialis, biceps, brachioradialis, pronator teres, pronator
quadratus, supinator and the finger flexor- and extensor groups. We also
have the elbow flexion-extension and pronation-supination axes of
rotation, calculated from kinematic data. All data are (can be) expressed
relative to relevant anatomical landmarks. This appears to be more or less
what you are looking for. During the ISB conference in Tokyo (1997) I
presented on the moment arms of the elbow muscles. Although much more data
are available than were presented in the abstract, I have not yet had the
opportunity to publish those data.

Some relevant publications:
1. Veeger HEJ, Helm FCTvd. Estimation of Muscle Moment Arms in
Flexion-Pronation Movements. XVIth ISB Congress. Tokyo: University of
Tokyo, 1997; 421
2. Veeger HEJ, Yu B, An KN. Orientation of axes in the elbow and forearm
for biomechanical modeling. In: Veeger HEJ, Helm FCTvd, Rozing PM, eds.
First Conference of the International Shoulder Group. Delft: Shaker
Publishers, Maastricht, 1997; 83-88.
3. Veeger HEJ, Yu B, An KN, Rozendal RHR. Parameters for modeling the
upper extremity. Journal of Biomechanics 1997; 30: 647-652
4. Veeger HEJ, Yu B. Orientations of axes in the elbow and forearm for
biomechanical modelling. In: Bajpai J, ed. XVth Biomedical Engineering
Society Conference. Dayton, OH, 1996; 377-380

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From: Goodwin Lawlor

Off the top of my head, the authors to look up for what you want are: An,
Morrey (Mayo Clinic), Amis (Imperial College, I think) and Nichol
(Strathclyde, I think). See who has cited these authors in their work and
you'll probably get some more relevant stuff.
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From: Rosi Raikova

Lately I use often the regression equations given in:
Pigeon et al., 1996. Moment arms and lengths of human upper limb muscles
as functions of joint angles. Journal of Biomechanics 29, 1365-1370.
Lemay and Crago, 1996. A dynamic model for simulating movements of the
elbow, forearm and wrist. J.Biomechanics 29, 1319-1330.
As to the main flexors and extensor of the elbow these equations work well.
I know about a paper in journal "Computer Methods in Biomechanics and
Biomedical Engineering ", authors, Garner B.A. and Pandy M.G., title
"Musculoskeletal model of the human arm based on visible man" where 3D
coordinates could be find, but I do not know whether this paper is already
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