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Petra Meier
02-22-2002, 02:54 AM
Dear all,

On 23 Jan 2002 Ellen Freiberger and Chris Kirtley written mails
asking for definition and differentation between terms.
Prof. Bögelsack and Dr. Schilling are working on definitions for the
IFToMM terminology.

So I would like to introduce their list of terms to the Biomch-L.

Regards

Petra Meier


G. Boegelsack :
The following list of terms referring to some aspects of
biomechanics was compiled at Technical University of
Ilmenau/Germany by G. Boegelsack and C. Schilling (Dec
2001) suggested by the Permanent Commission "Standards for
Terminology" of the International Federation for the Promotion
of Mechanism and Machine Science (IFToMM). Terms and
their definitions are to be published as one of several
supplement chapters to the already existing "Terminology for the
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms" in English, French,
German, Russian (Mech. Mach. Theory Vol. 26, No. 5, 1991
Pergamon Press).

The terms selected for the present are essentially restricted to
some areas of biomechanics of motion, particularly generation
and transmission of motion and force and the purpose of which
(e.g. locomotion and manipulation). Synonyma are enclosed in
square brackets. Anatomical and zoological terms are included
as far as they seem to be relevant to understand definitions of
other terms in interdisciplinary co-operation of engineers,
anatomists and bi-ologists pursuing biomimetic aims. For the
time being related definitions are available in English and
German. Corresponding versions in French and Russian will
follow. The draft should be seen as a starting-point. Further
enlargement should include other fields of biomechanics, e.g.
avian and aquatic locomotion, some more aspects of terrestric
locomotion, biomechanics of plants and cytomechanics.
Suggestions for improvement, completion and enlargement of the
draft are very welcome.

Terms Used in Biomechanics of Motion

1. General

allometry
anthropometric
balance
biomechanics
biomimetics
bone
capillary
cell
chitin
coherence
collagen
deformation, isochoric
extremity
fibre
fibril
filament
fluid
fluid, Bingham-plastic
fluid, dilatant
fluid, Newtonian
fluid, pseudoplastic
fluid, rheopectic
fluid; thixotropic
fluidity
gradient of velocity
Hanavan's model
kinesiology
limb
loading, combined
metabolism
method, segmental
morphology
organ
organism
osmosis
point, yield [elastic limit]
shear velocity
tensegrity
texture
tissue
tissue, connective
turgescence
turgor
viscoelastic
viscoelasticity
viscosity
viscosity, dynamic
viscosity, kinematic
Wolff's law

2. Generation of Motion and Force

action potential
activation
component, contractile
component, dislocating
component, parallel elastic
component, rotary
component, series elastic
component, stabilizing
contraction, auxotonic
contraction, concentric
contraction, eccentric
contraction, isokinetic
contraction, isometric
contraction, isotonic
contraction, tetanic
cross bridge
cycle, stretch-shortening
distribution [muscle co-operating] problem
electromyogram (EMG)
extensor
fibre arrangement, pennate
flexor
force-length characteristic
force-velocity characteristic
Hill's curve
Huxley's curve
inhibition, reciprocal
motoneuron
motor end-plate
motor unit
muscle
muscle fibre, fast twitch
muscle fibre, slow twitch
muscle spindle
muscle, agonistic
muscle, anatomical cross-sectional area of
muscle, antagonistic
muscle, bicipital
muscle, bipenniform
muscle, cardiac
muscle, digastric
muscle, feathered
muscle, fusiform
muscle, insertion of
muscle, multicipital
muscle, multijoint
muscle, negative work of
muscle, orbicular
muscle, origin of
muscle, physiological cross-sectional area (PCA) of
muscle, positive work of
muscle, smooth [involuntary], [visceral]
muscle, skeletal [voluntary] [striated]
muscle, synergistic
muscle; unipennate
recruitment
sarcomere
sliding theory of muscle contrac-tion
stretching, active
stretching, passive
synapsis
tonus
twitch

3. Transmission of Motion and Force

amphiarthrosis
aponeurosis
bursa
cartilage
cartilage, elastic
cartilage, fibro-
cartilage, hyaline
condylus
diarthrosis [synovial joint]
fibre arcades
fulcrum
hypomochlion
joint
joint flexibility
joint stability
joint, ball-and-socket [spherical]
joint, condyloid [ellipsoid]
joint, hinge [ginglymus]
joint, incongruent
joint, planar contact
joint, saddle
joint, trochoid [pivot]
ligament
ligaments, collaterale
ligaments, cruciate
meniscus
motion segment
position, close-packed
prestress
skeleton
skeleton, cyto-
skeleton, endo-
skeleton, exo-
skeleton, hydro- [hydrostatic]
synarthrosis
synovial fluid [synovia]
synovial membrane [synovium]
tendon
tendon sheath

4. Motion of Body and Body Parts

abduction
adduction
attack, angle of
biped
bound
bound, half
cycle of movement (of a leg)
dekapod
drag
drag, coefficient of
drag, propulsive
footfall
gait [footfall pattern]
gait, asymmetrical
gait, running
gait, symmetrical
gait, walking
gallop
gallop, rotary
gallop, transverse
hexapod
idiomotion
layer, boundary
lead
lift
lift, coefficient of
locomotion
locomotion, anguilliform
locomotion, apedal
locomotion, aquatic
locomotion, arboreal
locomotion, avian
locomotion, carangiform
locomotion, ostraciiform
locomotion, pedal [legged]
locomotion, peristaltic
locomotion, serpentine
locomotion, terrestrial
locomotion, undulatory
manipulation
metachronal
octopod
pace [rack] [amble]
phase, stand [stance] [contact interval] [support phase] [power
stroke]
phase, swing [recovery phase] [return stroke]
prehension
pronation
pronk
protraction
quadruped [tetrapod)
retraction
singlefoot [walk]
singlefoot in diagonal sequence
singlefoot in lateral sequence
step length
stride length
supination
support, base of
swing length
trot

5. Situation and Orientation in Body

anterior
axes, principal
axis, longitudinal
axis, sagittal
axis, transverse [frontal]
caudal
cranial
distal
dorsal
inferior
lateral
lateral, col-
lateral, contra-
lateral, ipsi-
medial
median
palmar
plane, frontal
plane, median
plane, sagittal
plane, transverse
planes, cardinal
plantar
posterior
proximal
superior
ventral

--------------------------------------------------

Petra Meier
Dipl. Phys., Dr. rer. nat.
Technical University Ilmenau
Institute of Microsystems Technology, Mechatronics and Mechanics
PO 100565, 98684 Ilmenau
Max-Planck-Ring 12, 98693 Ilmenau, Room F 306

e-mail: petra.meier@mb.tu-ilmenau.de
Phone: ++49(3677)69-1804
FAX: ++49(3677)69-1823
Mobile: ++49-173-5627634

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