View Full Version : Responses for DISC BULGE query

Ravikumar Varadarajan
07-13-2002, 06:05 AM
Here are the responses for my query regarding Lumbar Disc bulge data.
Thankyou you very much for all the responses. Special thanks to ERIC for the
excel file

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I attached a filed listing a bunch of papers taking measurement of the
intervertebral disc itself or of the disc space. I hope it is useful and
that you will post a summary of what members of the list will send you.

Good luck with your search.

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You can find experimentally measured disc bulge data in:
Reitman CA, Hipp JA, Kirking BC, Haas S, Esses SI.
Posterior annular strains during discography.
J Spinal Disord. 2001 Aug;14(4):347-52.

Heggeness MH, Doherty BJ.
Discography causes end plate deflection.
Spine. 1993 Jun 15;18(8):1050-3

and FE model predictions in

Lu YM, Hutton WC, Gharpuray VM
Can variations in intervertebral disc height affect the mechanical function
of the disc?
Spine. 1996 Oct 1;21(19):2208-16

Kim YE, Goel VK, Weinstein JN, Lim TH.
Effect of disc degeneration at one level on the adjacent level in axial
Spine. 1991 Mar;16(3):331-5.

and some observations in
Brinckmann P.
Injury of the annulus fibrosus and disc protrusions. An in vitro
investigation on human lumbar discs.
Spine. 1986 Mar;11(2):149-53.

Brinckmann P, Horst M.
The influence of vertebral body fracture, intradiscal injection, and partial
discectomy on the radial bulge and height of human lumbar discs.
Spine. 1985 Mar;10(2):138-45.

Tencer AF, Mayer TG.
Soft tissue strain and facet face interaction in the lumbar intervertebral
joint--Part I: Input data and computational technique.
J Biomech Eng. 1983 Aug;105(3):201-9.

Good luck. John Hipp, PhD

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I'm doing lumbar spine modelling as well.
I found lots for vertebra geometry (see list), but next to nothing for
disc geometry (bulge).

Good luck, Arno

[24] Mizrahi, J. et al.: Finite-Element stress analysis of the normal
and osteoporotic lumbar vertebral body, SPINE, Vol. 18, pp. 2088-2096, 1993

[20] Lavaste, F. et al.: Three-dimensional geometrical and mechanical
modelling of the lumbar spine, J. BIOMECHANICS, Vol. 25, pp. 1153-1164, 1992

[41] Tencer, A. F.; Mayer, T.G.: Soft tissue strain and facet face
interaction in the lumbar interver-tebral joint - Part I : Input data and
computational technique, J. BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING, Vol. 105, pp. 201-209,

[3] Berry, J. L. et al.: A morphometric study of human lumbar and
selected thoracic vertebrae, SPINE, Vol. 12, pp. 362-367, 1987

[7] Cotterill, P. C. et al.: An anatomical comparison of the human and
bovine thoracolumbar spine, J. ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Vol. 4, pp. 298-303, 1986

[42] Tulsi R., S.; Hermanis G. M.: A study of the angle of inclination
and facet curvature of superior lumbar zygapophyseal facets, SPINE, Vol. 18,
pp. 1311-1317, 1993

[31] Panjabi, M. M. et al.: Three-Dimensional quantitative morphology of
lumbar spinal ligaments, J. SPINAL DISORDERS, Vol. 4m pp. 54-62, 1991

[32] Panjabi, M. M. et al.: Articular facets of the human spine -
quantitative three-dimensional anatomy, SPINE, Vol. 18, pp. 1298-1310, 1993

[2] Belytschko, T.; Privitzer, E.: Refinement and validation of a
three-dimentional head-spine model, AMRL-TR-78-7, 1978

[5] Chaffin, D. B.: A computerized model - development of and use in
studying gross body actions, J. BIOMECHANICS, Vol. 2, pp. 429-441, 1969

[10] Gilad, I.; Nissan M.: A study of vertebra and disc geometric
relations of the human cervical and lumbar spine, SPINE, Vol. 11, pp.
154-157, 1986

[18] Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.: A model analysis of whole-body
vertical vibration, using a finite element model of the human body, J.
SOUND and VIBRATION, Vol. 200, pp. 83-103, 1997

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Brown et al (1957)
Lin et al (1978)
Reuber et al (1982)
Seroussi et al (1989)
Meakin and Hukins (2000)
Meakin and Hukins (2001)
Shirazi-Adl et al (1984)
Goel and Kim (1989)
These are all papers that include disc bulge data under load

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I am also working on research regarding the lumbar spine. Here are a few
articles I found through Medline searching "lumbar spine anatomy". I hope they
help and there are many more on Medline that I have not included.
Good luck,Scott

Shao Z. Rompe G. Schiltenwolf M. Radiographic changes in the lumbar
intervertebral discs and lumbar vertebrae with age. [Journal Article] Spine.
27(3):263-8, 2002 Feb 1.

Tan SH. Teo EC. Chua HC. Quantitative three-dimensional anatomy of lumbar
vertebrae in Singaporean Asians. [Journal Article] European Spine Journal.
11(2):152-8, 2002 Apr.

Boszczyk BM. Boszczyk AA. Putz R. Comparative and functional anatomy of the
mammalian lumbar spine. [Journal Article] Anatomical Record. 264(2):157-68,
2001 Oct 1.

Semaan I. Skalli W. Veron S. Templier A. Lassau JP. Lavaste F. [Quantitative
3D anatomy of the lumbar spine]. [French] [Journal Article. Validation
Studies] Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Reparatrice de l Appareil Moteur.
87(4):340-53, 2001 Jun.

Lundon K. Bolton K. Structure and function of the lumbar intervertebral disk
in health, aging, and pathologic conditions. [Review] [84 refs] [Journal
Article. Review. Review, Tutorial] Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical
Therapy. 31(6):291-303; discussion 304-6, 2001 Jun

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Hi there,
You might want to get hold of a book called "Biomechanics of back pain" by
adams, bogduk , burton and dolan. Publisher churchill livingstone

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