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Jesus Dapena
05-03-1993, 09:38 PM
Dear Biomch-L readers:

I believe this was the first time I made a request to the
Biomch-L readership. The response was great. For me, it confirms
Biomch-L as an outstanding communications tool for our field. I want
to thank all those that answered my plea for help.

Here is a composite listing with papers that showed graphs of
the hip, knee and ankle torques of the support leg during running.
It is based on mesasages sent to me through Biomch-L (or in some
cases by postal mail) by Janet Dufek, Steve McCaw, Paul De Vita,
Brian Davis, Irene McClay, Francois Prince, Jaap van Dieen, Duane
Knudson, Jos de Koning, Christoph Reinschmidt and Arthur J. van
Soest. I list the papers in chronological order:

Mann, R. and P. Sprague. A kinetic analysis of the ground leg during
sprint running. Res. Quart. Exerc. Sport 51(2):334-348, 1980.
[this is the original paper that I knew of when I sent my request to
Biomch-L]


Mann, R.V. Med. Sci. Sports Ex. 13:325-328, 1981.

Winter, D.A. Moments of force and mechanical power in jogging. J.
Biomechanics 16(1):91-97, 1983.

Robertson, D.G.E. Biomechanics XB 1021-1027, 1987.

Buczec, F.L. and P.R. Cavanagh. Stance phase knee and ankle
kinematics and kinetics during level and downhill running. MSSE
22(5):669-677, 1990.
[only knee and ankle torques]

De Vita, P. and W.A. Skelly. Intrasubject variability of lower
extremity joint moments of force during the stance phase of running.
Human Movement Science, 9:99-115, 1990.

Dufek, Schot and Bates. Dynamic lower extremity evaluation of males
and females during walking and running. J. Human Movement Studies,
18:159-175, 1990.

Scott & Winter. Internal forces at chronic running injury sites.
Med. Sci. Sports Ex. 22(3):357-369, 1990
[only knee and ankle torques]

Simpson and Bates. The effect of running speed on lower extremity
joint moments generated during the support phase. IJSB, 6:309-324,
1990.

De Vita, P. and J. Stribling. Lower extremity joint kinetics and
energetics during backward running. MSSE, 23(5):602-610, 1991.
[also includes torques in normal running]

De Vita, P., P.B. Hunter and W.A. Skelly. Effects of a functional
knee brace on the biomechanics of running. MSSE, 24(7):797-806,
1992.

Jacobs R. and G.J. van Ingen Schenau. Intermuscular co-ordination in
a sprint push-off. J. Biomechanicss 25: 953-965, 1992.

Mero, Komi, & Gregor. Sports Medicine 13:376, 1992

Prince, F.F.G. et al. Comparison of gait between adults fitted with
the Space Foot and non disabled subjects. Archives of Physical
Medicine and Rehabilitation (in press).
[includes running by able-bodied subjects]

de Koning, J.J., R. Jacobs and B. Nigg. Kinematic and kinetic
adaptations in running due to footwear. (submitted for publication).
[author's present address:
J.J. de Kooning
Human Performance Laboratory
University of Calgary
2500 University Drive
Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 Canada]

Jacobs, R. et al. [This is a paper on sub-maximal running that has
been submitted for publication. Jaap van Dieen says in his e-mail
message:

Maybe you should address the author directly:
his present address is:
Ron Jacobs
R.S. Dow Neurological Sci Institute
1120 NW 20th Avenue
Portland Oregon 97209 USA]


[What follows is a long list of papers that deal with joint
torques during gait. The list was provided by Kit Vaughan, and it
was taken from his GaitBib package. These papers all deal in one way
or another with joint torques during gait, but they may or may not
include detailed graphical information on the joint torque patterns
of the support leg during running.]


Ae M; Miyashita K; Shibukawa K; okoi T; Hashihara
1985
Body segment contributions during the support phase while running at
different velocities
Biomechanics IX-B, (eds. DA Winter, RW Norman, RP Wells, KC Hays, AE
Patla), Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, 343-349
linear velocity, sprinting, force plate, movie photography,
tachometer, resultant joint torques, foot, knee, hip


Ae M; Miyashita K; okoi T; Hashihara
1987
Mechanical powers and works done by the muscles of the lower limb
during running at different speeds
Biomechanics X-B (ed. B. Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers,
Champaign, Illinois, 895-899
running, sprinting, force plate, resultant joint torques, angular
velocity


Ae M; Miyashita K; okoi T
1988
Mechanical energy flows in lower limb segments during sprinting
Biomechanics XI-B (eds. G de Groot, AP Hollander, PA Huijing, GJ van
Ingen Schenau) Free University Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.
614-618
running, lower extremity joints, kinematics, force plate, resultant
joint forces, resultant joint torques, work energy power


Aleshinsky S ; Zatsiorsky VM
1978
Human locomotion in space analyzed biomechanically through a
multi-link chain model
Journal of Biomechanics, 11:101-108
normal walking, race walking, running, joints, linear velocity, force
plate, resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques, newton,
signal frame photography


Aleshinsky S
1985 Oct
Energy approach to human performance evaluation (abstract)
9th Annual Meeting, American Society of Biomechanics, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
work energy power, running, normal walking, sports physiology,
resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques


Alexander MJ
1990
Peak torque values for antagonist muscle groups and concentric and
eccentric contraction types for elite sprinters
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71(5):334-339
running, lower extremity joints, resultant joint torques, sprinting


Andriacchi TP; Mikosz RP
1991
Musculoskeletal dynamics, locomotion and clinical applications
Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics, (eds. VC Mow, WC Hayes), Raven Press,
New ork, pp. 51-92
lower extremity joints, resultant joint torques, ascending
descending, angular displacement, linear velocity, arthritis, joint
prosthesis, effects of surgery, knee, running


Bourassa PA; Morel
1985
A mathematical model for computer simulation of human running motion
Biomechanics IX-B (eds. DA Winter, RW Norman, RP Wells, KC Hayes, AE
Patla), Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, 325-330
running, computer modelling, lagrange, resultant joint forces,
resultant joint torques, work energy power


Burgess EM; Hittenberger DA; Carpenter KL
1984
The VA Seattle Foot
Rehabilitation R D Progress Reports, Veterans Administration,
Washington, DC, 5
running, foot, resultant joint torques, joint prosthesis


Cappozzo A
1980
Forces and couples in the lumbar spine during running (abstract)
Journal of Biomechanics, 13(9):806
running, trunk, resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques,
trunk emg


Chapman AE; Caldwell GE
1983
Factors determining changes in lower limb energy during swing in
treadmill running
Journal of Biomechanics, 16(1):69-77
lower extremity joints, resultant joint torques, resultant joint
forces, work energy power, treadmill, running, female gait, linear
velocity


Chengzhi L; Zongcheng H
1985 Jun
Temporal and kinematic analysis of swing leg for elite sprinters
(abstract)
10th International Congress of Biomechanics, Umea, Sweden
running, sprinting, angular displacement, angular velocity, resultant
joint torques


Correa S
1988
A kinematic study of long distance running performed at different
velocities in atheletes of distinct degrees of skill

Biomechanics XI-B (eds. G de Groot, AP Hollander, PA Huijing, GJ van
Ingen Schenau) Free University Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.
630-634
stride length and frequency, linear acceleration, angular velocity,
resultant joint torques, running, middle and long distance


Czerniecki JM; Gitter A; Munro C
1991
Joint moment and muscle power output characteristics of below knee
amputees during running: the influence of energy storing prosthetic
feet
Journal of Biomechanics, 24(1):63-75
limb prosthesis, work energy power, resultant joint torques, foot


DeVita P; Skelly WA
1989
Intrasubject variability in lower extremity joint moments of force
during the support phase of running (abstract)
Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress on Bimechanics, UCLA,
Los Angeles, California, p. 60
force plate, kinematics, resultant joint torques, statistics, middle
and long distance


DeVita P; Stribling J
1991
Lower extremity joint kinetics and energetics during backwards
running
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23(5):602-610
abnormal walking, linear displacement, linear velocity, linear
acceleration, angular displacement, angular velocity, angular
acceleration, force plate, resultant joint torques, work energy
power, movi


Dillman CJ
1971
A kinetic analysis of the recovery leg in sprint running
Selected Topics on Biomechanics (ed. JM Cooper), Athletic Institute,
Chicago, 137-165
running, sprinting, lower extremity joints, kinetics, resultant joint
torques


Elliot BC
1977
The co-ordination of force summation in the lower limb during the
recovery phase of treadmill running
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 3:82-87
treadmill, running, resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques


Elliot BC; Blanksby BA
1979
The synchronization of muscle activity and body segment movements
during a running cycle
Medicine and Science in Sports, 11(4):322-327
running, treadmill, calf emg, thigh emg, resultant joint torques,
statistics, movie photography


Elliott BC; Blanksby BA
1979
A biomechanical analysis of the male jogging action
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 5:42-51
middle and long distance, foot emg, calf emg, thigh emg, treadmill,
movie photography, resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques,
linear acceleration


Fuchimoto T; Ito A; Kaneko M
1989
Joint torque production and emg activity during sprint running of
sprinters and distance runners (abstract)
Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress on Biomechanics,
UCLA, Los Angeles, California, p. 267
sprinting, middle and long distance, resultant joint torques, calf
emg, thigh emg


Gagnon M
1978
A kinetic analysis of the kneeling and the standing starts in female
sprinters of different ability
Biomechanics VI-B, (eds. E Asmussen, K Jorgensen), University Park
Press, Baltimore, 46-50
running, linear velocity, linear acceleration, force plate, linear
and angular momentum, movie photography, sprinting


Harrison D; Nicol AC; Paul JP
1983
Biomechanics of high stress lower limb activities
Rehabilitation R D Progress Reports, Veterans Administration,
Washington, DC, 118
lower extremity joints, resultant joint forces, normal walking,
running, force plate, resultant joint torques, movie photography


Hinrichs RN; Cavanagh PR; Williams KR
1983
Upper extremity contributions to angular momentum in running
Biomechanics VIII-B, (eds. H Matsui, K Kobayashi), Human Kinetics
Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, 641-647
running, treadmill, movie photography, shoulder, elbow and wrist,
linear and angular momentum


Hinrichs RN
1985
A three-dimensional analysis of the net moments at the shoulder and
elbow joints in running and their relationship to upper extremity EMG
activity
Biomechanics IX-B, (eds. DA Winter, RW Norman, RP Wells, KC Hayes, AE
Patla), Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, 337-342
running, treadmill, movie photography, trunk emg, arm emg, resultant
joint torques, angular displacement, angular velocity


Hinrichs RN
1990
Whole body movement: coordination of arms and legs in walking and
running
Multiple Muscle Systems - Biomechanics and Movement Organizaiton.
(eds. JM Winters, SL Woo) Springer-Verlag, New ork, pp. 694-705
normal walking, kinematics, head arms trunk, linear and angular
momentum, arm emg, running


Hinrichs RN
1990
Upper extremity function in distance running
Biomechanics of Distance Running (ed. PR Cavanagh), Human Kinetics
Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, pp. 107-133
middle and long distance, shoulder, elbow and wrist, linear and
angular momentum, running, resultant joint torques, arm emg, forearm
and hand emg


Holden JP; Cavanagh PR
1986 Aug
The free moment of ground reaction in distance running and its
changes with pronation (abstract)
North American Congress on Biomechanics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
running, stride length and frequency, foot, middle and long distance


Holden JP; Cavanagh PR
1991
The free moment of ground reaction in distance running and its
changes with pronation
Journal of Biomechanics 24(10):887-897
force plate, running, middle and long distance, sports footwear


Jacobs R; van Ingen Schenau GJ
1991
Intermuscular coordination in a sprinting task (abstract)
Proceedings of XIIIth International Congress on Biomechanics,
University of Western Australia, Perth, pp. 79-81
running, sprinting, thigh emg, work energy power, resultant joint
torques


Jaworek K
1988
Application of phase diagrams to the analysis of human motion
activities
Biology of Sport 5(Supplement)1:47-54
normal walking, running, lower extremity joints, angular
displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, force plate,
resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques, work energy power


Lafortune MA
1987
Impact loading of the lower limb (abstract)
Proceedings of the XIth International Congress on Biomechanics,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 179
normal walking, running, force plate, accelerometry, linear and
angular momentum


Mann R; Sprague P
1980
A kinetic analysis of the ground leg during sprint running
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 51(2):334-348
running, sprinting, force plate, lower extremity joints, resultant
joint torques, movie photography, Newton


Mann RV
1981
A kinetic analysis of sprinting
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 13(5):325-328
running, sprinting, resultant joint torques, lower extremity joints,
shoulder, elbow and wrist, movie photography, force plate


Martin PE; Cavanagh PR
1990
Segment interactions within the swing leg during unloaded and loaded
running
Journal of Biomechanics, 23(6):529-536
running, load carrying, treadmill, lower extremity joints, resultant
joint forces, resultant joint torques, middle and long distance


Miller DI
1980 Mar
Body segment contributions to sport skill performance: two
contrasting approaches
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 51(1):219-233
running, knee, hip, angular displacement, force plate, resultant
joint torques, newton


Miller DI; Passer MW; Burgess EM
1983
Development and improvement of running skill in unilateral below-knee
amputees
Rehabilitation R D Progress Reports, Veterans Administration,
Washington, DC, 7
limb prosthesis, running, force plate, movie photography, linear
acceleration, linear velocity, angular velocity, angular
acceleration, resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques, lower
extremity joints


Miller DI; Munro GF
1984 Oct
Joint torque patterns of below knee amputees during running stance
(abstract)
8th Annual Meeting, American Society of Biomechanics, University of
Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
resultant joint torques, running, force plate, lower extremity
joints, limb prosthesis


Miller DI
1987
Resultant lower extremity joint moments in below-knee amputees during
running stance
Journal of Biomechanics, 20(5):529-541
running, knee, resultant joint torques, limb prosthesis


Ostrowska E; Opaszowski B
1985 Jun
Mechanical power and efficiency of distance runners in 1000m run
(abstract)
Xth International Congress of Biomechanics, Umea, Sweden
running, work energy power, linear and angular momentum, oxygen
consumption


Phillips SJ; Roberts EM; Huang TC
1983
Quantification of intersegmental reactions during rapid swing motion
Journal of Biomechanics, 16(6):411-417
newton, linear acceleration, resultant joint torques, running, knee,
hip, movie photography


Plagenhoef S
1968 Oct
A kinetic analysis of running
Track and Field Quarterly Review, US Track Coaches Association, 56-64
running, kinetics, lower extremity joints, resultant joint torques,
mathematics


Putnam CA; Kozey JW
1989
Substantive issues in running
Biomechanics of Sport, (ed. CL Vaughan), CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Florida, pp. 1-33
running, force plate, lower extremity joints, resultant joint
torques, work energy power, calf emg, thigh emg, sports injuries, air
resistance, middle and long distance


Ready AE
1984 Jun
Physiological characteristics of male and female middle distance
runners
Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 9(2):70-77
middle and long distance, female gait, ankle, knee, angular
displacement, resultant joint torques, oxygen consumption


Robertson DGE; Taunton JE
1982 Sep
Power characteristics of leg muscles during stance phase of running
Proceedings of Human Locomotion II, 100-101
middle and long distance, orthosis, lower extremity joints, angular
velocity, resultant joint forces, resultant joint torques, work
energy power, force plate, movie photography, numerical analysis


Robertson DGE
1987
Functions of the leg muscles in running
Biomechanics X-B (ed. B. Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers,
Champaign, Illinois, 1021-1028.
running, force plate, resultant joint forces, resultant joint
torques, work energy power, ankle, knee, hip, linear displacement,
angular displacement


Schot PK; Dufek JS; Bates BT
1989
Lower extremity moments of force during three gait conditions
(abstract)
Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress on Biomechanics,
UCLA, Los Angeles, California, p. 94
normal walking, running, lower extremity joints, kinematics, force
plate, resultant joint torques, movie photography


Scranton PE; McMaster JH
1976
Momentary distribution of forces under the foot
Journal of Biomechanics, 9(1):45-48
normal walking, abnormal walking, running, foot, force plate, osseous
disorders


Selbie WS; Chapman AE
1987
A mathematical simulation of human running
Biomechanics X-B (ed. B. Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers,
Champaign, Illinois, 831-836.
running, simulated gait, resultant joint torques, computer modelling


Simpson KJ; Bates BT
1989
The effect of running speed on lower extremity joint moments during
the support phase (abstract)
Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress on Biomechanics,
UCLA, Los Angeles, California, p. 321
running, force plate, movie photography, resultant joint torques


Sykes K
1975
Technique and observation of angular gait patterns in running
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 9(4):181-186
running, angular displacement, angular velocity, linear and angular
momentum


Tricker RAR; Tricker BJK
1968
The dynamics of athletics. I. Movement in a straight line
The Science of Movement, Mills and Boon, London, 212-223
normal walking, running, stride length and frequency, kinetics,
linear and angular momentum


Vaughan CL; Hay JG; Andrews JG
1982
Closed loop problems in biomechanics. Part I. A classification
system
Journal of Biomechanics, 15(3):197-200
class of gait, normal walking, abnormal walking, running, joints,
resultant joint torques, force plate, orthopaedic aids, sports


Vaughan CL
1984
Biomechanics of running gait
Critical Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 12(1):1-48
running, ascending descending, load carrying, treadmill, sprinting,
middle and long distance, force plate, resultant joint forces,
resultant joint torques, work energy power, air resistance,
pathology, record of motion


Vermeulen S; Nigg B
1987
On the application of the phase plane to the study of human running
Biomechanics X-B (ed. B. Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers,
Champaign, Illinois, 843-848.
running, normal walking, treadmill, stride length and frequency,
angular velocity, knee, resultant joint torques, sports injuries


Winter DA
1983
Moments of force and mechanical power in jogging
Journal of Biomechanics, 16(1):91-97
middle and long distance, lower extremity joints, resultant joint
torques, work energy power, force plate, movie photography,
television, foot switches, numerical analysis, resultant joint forces


Zernicke RF; Schneider K; Buford JA
1991
Intersegmental dynamics during gait: implications for control
Adaptability of Human Gait: Implications for the Control of
Locomotion (ed. AE Patla) North Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,
pp. 187-202
normal walking, running, treadmill, movie photography, lower
extremity joints, angular displacement, angular velocity, resultant
joint torques



That's all, folks!

Thanks a lot to all.

Jesus Dapena