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unknown user
03-16-2003, 09:07 PM
Dear BIOMCH-L users,



after about 4 weeks (16/02/2003) since my posting to the list, I have
received the following replies (in alphabetical order), to the message:



>from what I've found out there are five main models for the shoulder :

>1) 'Swedish' model, Karlsson D. and Peterson B. (1992), JBiomech. 25;

>2) 'Delft' model, Van der Helm F.C.T (1994), JBiomech. 27;

>3) 'Newcastle' model, Charlton I.W. & Johnson G.R. (2000), Proc.
International Shoulder Group;

>4) Garner B.A. and Pandy M.G. (2001), Comput.Methods
Biomech.Biomed.Engin. vol. 4, who implemented a model based on the Visible
Human Male Dataset;

>5) CHARM Project, Maurel W., Thalmann,D. (1999), Comput.Methods
Biomech.Biomed.Engin., vol. 2.

> Do I have to add someone to my list?

>Can you help me in pointing out what are the main limitations (if any) of
the currently available models?



1) Steve Levin gives this reference to one of his work, presented at the
International Shoulder Group, Calgary, 1997 and published in:

Author: Levin, S. M.

Year: 1997

Title: Putting the shoulder to the wheel: a new biomechanical model for the
shoulder girdle

Journal: Biomed Sci Instrum

Volume: 33

Pages: 412-7

Accession Number: 9731395

Keywords: Biomechanics

Human

*Models, Biological

Models, Structural

Shoulder/*physiology

Shoulder Joint/physiology



Abstract: The least successfully modeled joint complex has been the
shoulder. In multi-segmented mathematical shoulder models rigid beams (the

bones) act as a series of columns or levers to transmit forces or loads to
the axial skeleton. Forces passing through the almost frictionless joints
must, somehow, always be directed perfectly perpendicular to the joints as
only loads directed at right angles to the surfaces could transfer across
frictionless joints. Loads transmitted to the axial skeleton would have to
pass through the moving ribs or the weak jointed clavicle and then through
the ribs. A new model of the shoulder girdle, based on the tension
icosahedron described by Buckminster Fuller, is proposed that permits the
compression loads passing through the arm and shoulder to be transferred to
the axial skeleton through its soft tissues. In this model the scapula
'floats' in the tension network of shoulder girdle muscles just as the hub
of the wire wheel is suspended in its tension network of spokes. With this
construct inefficient beams and levers are eliminated. A more energy
efficient, load distributing, integrated, hierarchical system is created.



2) Mohsen Makhsous informs of his contribution in the further developed
the Swedish model. Main references are:

a. his PhD dissertation "Improvements, Validation and Adaptation of a
Shoulder Model", Dept. of Polymeric Materials, School of Mechanical and
Vehicular Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg, 1999;

b. Makhsous M, Hogfors C, Siemienski A, Peterson B. "Total shoulder and
relative muscle strength in the scapular plane", J Biomech. 1999
Nov;32(11):1213-20.

c. Makhsous M, Hogfors C, Siemienski A, Peterson B. "Strength profiles of
the Shoulder", 1996, First Conference of the International Shoulder Group
(ISG), 59-64

d. Palmerud, G., Makhsous M, Sporrong, H., Herberts, P., Hogfors C,
Kadefors, R. "Estimation of the Load Sharing Pattern in the Shoulder - A
comparison Between Electromyographical Measurements and Biomechanical Model
Calculations", 1999, Submitted to Journal of Biomechanics

e. Makhsous M , Palmerud, G., Ericson, K., Hogfors C, "Influence of
tonus, elastic stress and submaximality in static contraction of the
shoulder muscles", 1998, Studia I Monografie AWF we Wroclawiu. 55, 41-48

f. Makhsous M, Hogfors C, Backman, K., Svensson, M. "The role of the
Conoid and Trapezoid Ligaments as displayed by a Shoulder Model", 1999,
Submitted to Journal of Biomechanics





3) John Rasmussen announces the implementation of a remake of the Dutch
shoulder model in the AnyBody's modeling language AnyScript, which is not
finished yet. The model, once finished, will be made available to the public
at the homepage of the AnyBody research project,
http://anybody.auc.dk.



4) Federica Sibella gives these references to her works:



a. Sibella F., Galli M., Motta F., Crivellini M., "Upper limbs movement
analysis in baclofen treated subjects", Gait and Posture, Vol. 14, N.2, pp.
146, 2001 (I.F.0.88)



b. Sibella F., Galli M., Motta F., Crivellini M.,Sibella F., Galli M.,
Motta F., Crivellini M., "Biomechanical model and experimental protocol for
upper limbs movement analysis", Gait and Posture, Vol. 16, Suppl. 1, 2002,
pp. 94-95



c. Sibella F., Galli M., Motta F., Crivellini M.,Sibella F., Galli M.,
Motta F., Crivellini M., "Biomechanical model for upper limbs movement
analysis", Gait and Posture, Vol. 16, Suppl. 1, 2002, pp. 189



d. Sibella F., Galli M., Motta F., Crivellini M., "A new biomechanical
model and experimental protocol for upper limbs movement analysis",
Abstracts from the Seventh annual Meeting of GCMAS, Chattanooga, TN, April
17-20, 2002, pp. 196-197



e. Sibella F., Galli M., Crivellini M., "A new biomechanical model and
experimental protocol for upper limbs movement analysis: validation
procedure using a mechanical model of the shoulder girdle and upper
extremity", Abstract from Seventh International Symposium on 3D Analysis of
Human Movement, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, July 10-12, 2002, pp. 48-51



f. Sibella F., Galli M., Motta F., Crivellini M., "Upper limbs movement
analysis for impairment evaluation: a standardization proposal", accepted to
GCMAS 2003, Wilmington, DE, USA , may 7th-10th 2003





Thanks to all those who replied.

Yours sincerely

Andrea Cutti



--------------------------

Ing. Andrea Giovanni Cutti

PhD Student, Dept. of Electronics, Computer Science and Systems, University
of Bologna, Italy

e-mail: agcutti@deis.unibo.it







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