View Full Version : Re: 50th % Femur/Tibia Anthropometry

Kavi Bhalla
04-03-2003, 10:28 AM
Thank you everybody who responded to my question about the
anthropometry of the 50th Male geometry.

Here is a summary of the responses that I received.

I now have access to many of the papers that were suggested by
people (responses below). If anybody would like electronic
copies, please feel free to check with me.

Kavi Bhalla

Dear Biomech-L community,

We have been working on developing a 50th Male lower limb FE
model, based on the visible human model. Since the visible human
male, is much taller and heavier than an average male, we are
going to scale our FE mesh in three directions (prox-dist,
ant-post, and med-lat) to match that of an average male.

In order to do this, I have been looking through the
biomechanics literature for the dimensions of the "average"
femur. The best leads I have found so far are Noble et al.
(1988), Husmann et al. (1997), and Iguchi et al. (1996). All of
these studies report femur anthropometric information from CTs,
radiographs and transverse sections of a large number of femurs.
While this is exactly the kind of data I'm looking for, none of
these papers report their results separately for Male and Female
populations. Since we expect differences in male/female, these
results are not suitable for a MALE lower limb model, such as

If anybody knows of a source for male bone geometry data, please
do let me know. I shall summarize and post replies.

If you have other ideas/comments on how we could scale a lower
limb FE mesh developed from visible human to 50th Male, I would
be happy to hear them.

Thank you
Kavi Bhalla



I agree with your comment that differences are expected between
male and female lower limbs. However, if the differences are
small then pooling the data might be okay. You might consider
some statistical analysis of the existing data to determine if
there are two distinctpopulations, or if there is only one

Paul Ostic
MSc Candidate
Queen's University
Kingston ON Canada


another non "male only" reference (sorry - but it is a classic)

C. B. Ruff and W. C. Hayes. Cross-Sectional Geometry of Pecos
Pueblo Femora and TIbiae - A Biomechanical Investigation: I.
Method and General Patterns of Variation. American Journal of
Physical Anthropology 60:359-381, 1983.


Hi Kavi

Although I think that this has no male only data, you might find
this paper useful with a few additional measurements to Noble's
paper in 1988:

Sugano N, Noble PC and Kamaric MS "Predicting the Position of
the Femoral Head Center" Journal of Arthroplasty 14 102-107

One study that did look at male female differences is:

I. C. Clarke and H. C. Amstutz. Human hip joint geometry and
hemiarthroplasty selection. In: The Hip, C.V.Mosby, St Louis,
1975, p. 63-89.

If you're considering the acetabulum and sex differences, you
could also try:

M. S. Thompson, T. Dawson, J-H. Kuiper, M. D. Northmore-Ball,
and K. E. Tanner. Acetabular Morphology and Resurfacing Design.
Journal of Biomechanics 33 (12):1645-1653, 2000.

good luck!



Hi Kavi,

You are fortunate that I read your posting: I have exactly the
data youwant!

I have attached to this email a copy of an abstract I have
written. In it you will find a table of average values, for both
male and female Caucasians
(it does vary with ethnicity), of linear dimensions of the knee.
Note the large sample size in my own abstract: these results
alone should suffice for you.

Listed below are a number of papers documenting results of
femoral measurements, most of which distinguish between males
and females. These
papers document knee dimensions from Caucasians/ Indians/

"A study of knee geometry applied to the design of condylar
prosthesis" MJ Erkman and PS Walker. Biomedical Engineering 1974
pp 14 - 17

"Morphometrical studies of human femoral condyles" T Rostlund, L

Carlsson, B Albrektsson and T Albrektsson. J Biomed Eng 1989 Vol
11 pp442 - 448

"Determination of the major dimensions of femoral implants using
morphometrical data and principal component analysis" FH Low, L
P Khoo, C K Chua and N N Lo. Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 214 Part
H pp 301 - 309

"Rotational landmarks and sizing of the distal femur in total
knee arthroplasty" P L Poilvache, J N Insall, G R Scuderi and D
E Font-Rodriguez. Clinical Oprthopaedics and Related Research.
Number 331 pp 35-46

"Anthropometric Measurements to Design Total Knee Prostheses for
the Indian Population" S V Vaidya, C S Ranawat, A Aroojis and N
S Laud. Journal of Arthroplasty Vol. 15 No.1 2000 pp 79-85

"A Study of Chinese Knee Joint Geometry for Prosthesis Design"
Wang SW, Feng CH and Lu HS. Chinese Medical Journal 105 (3) 1992
pp 227-233

That should do the trick!
Good luck,

Niall Rooney (Ireland)

There is some information from:

Sommer, H.J., Siegel, L.K., Stanhope, S.J. ,Kepple, T.M.,
A Three-Dimensional Musculoskeletal Database for the Lower
Extremities Journal of Biomechanics,31, 77-80,1998.

Keppler, P., Gebhard, F., Kinz L., Strecker, W. Length and
torsion of the lower limb. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery,
79(6):1019-23, Nov 1997.

Some time ago I was looking for similar information, I hope
that these articles will be helpful. Also, I will apreciate the
summary of replies.

Than you.



************************************************** ****
Note: My email address has evolved to kavi@virginia.edu
************************************************** *****

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