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Sandhitsu R Das
04-04-2003, 09:17 AM
Dear colleagues,

This is the summary of responses to my query reharding "Muscle activation
timing". Thanks to everyone who responded. Your responses were very
helpful.

Thanks,
Sandhitsu Das

Here is the original query followed by the responses:


-----Original Message-----
From: Sandhitsu R Das [mailto:sudas@SEAS.UPENN.EDU]
Sent: Thursday, March 27, 2003 6:40 PM
To: BIOMCH-L@NIC.SURFNET.NL
Subject: [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing


Dear Colleagues,

I am looking for data regarding the timing of activation and inactivation
of different limb muscles during human motion (probably from EMG data). I
am trying to relate these "on and off" (activation and inactivation) time
points with salient kinematical events of walking like extrema of joint
positions and angles. Any data associating muscle activation timing and
kinematics would be very helpful. I'm sure this has been done many years
back - I just don't know where to find accurate data.

I initially looked into the book "Human Walking" by Inman et al. They had
pictorial representation of the limb position and muscle activation but
they only had a few frames to describe a full walking stride. The ISB
database had some EMG data with better resolution (20 ms per frame), but
there is no kinematic data along with it. Also, this database only had
data on walking, I'm looking to compare different gaits as well.


Could someone point me to the right place ?

Thanks,
Sandhitsu Das
Bioengineering
University if Pennsylvania

__________________________________________________ ________________________

From BGHORN@bsu.edu Fri Apr 4 18:05:25 2003
Date: Wed, 2 Apr 2003 14:21:52 -0500
From: "Horn, Bryon G."
To: Sandhitsu R Das
Subject: RE: [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing


Sandhitsu,

Try these two references:

Nashner, L.M., Forssberg, H. (1986). Phase-dependent organization of
postural adjustments associated with arm movements while walking.
Journal of Neurophysiology, 55(6), 1382-1394.


Hirschfeld, H. Forssberg, H. (1991). Phase-dependent modulations of
anticipatory postural activity during human locomotion. Journal
of Neurophysiology, 66, 12-19.

These are from my thesis, if I run across any others I will send them to you. Good luck

Bryon Horn
Ball State University
School of Physical Education
Muncie, IN 47306
bghorn@bsu.edu


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From ted@hutt.ece.wpi.edu Fri Apr 4 18:05:25 2003
Date: Fri, 28 Mar 2003 08:53:23 -0500
From: Ted Clancy
To: Sandhitsu R Das
Subject: Re: [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing

Sandhitsu,

I'm currently involved in a small project looking at EMG ON/OFF timing of
the calf muscles during gait. My co-investigators (mostly Pat Riley at
Spaulding Hospital, Boston) have helped to assemble some relevant citations
in the field. The easiest thing for me to do was to copy the reference
section of our draft paper and attach it below. Several of the citations
could be helpful (please ignore the citations that are unrelated and the
inconsistent format!).

Hope this is helpful,

Ted Clancy

__________________________________________________ __________________________
_________
Kerrigan DC. Della Croce U. Marciello M. Riley PO. A refined view of the
determinants of gait: significance of heel rise. Archives of Physical
Medicine & Rehabilitation. 81(8):1077-80, 2000 Aug.

Saunders JBD, Inman VT, Eberhart HD. The major determinants in normal
and pathological gait. AM J Bone Joint Surg 1953; 35:543-558.

Kerrigan DC. Riley PO. Lelas JL. Della Croce U. Quantification of pelvic
rotation as a determinant of gait. [Journal Article] Archives of Physical
Medicine & Rehabilitation. 82(2):217-20, 2001 Feb.

Gard SA. Childress DS. The influence of stance-phase knee flexion on the
vertical displacement of the trunk during normal walking. [Journal Article]
Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 80(1):26-32, 1999 Jan.

Gard SA, Childress DS What Determines Vertical Motion of the human body
during normal gait? 5th Annual Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Meeting
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, April 12-15, 2000.

Sutherland DH, Cooper L, Daniel D. The role of the ankle plantar
flexors in normal walking. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1980; 62:
354-363

Perry J, Gait Analysis: Normal and Pahological Function, Thorofare,
SLACK; 1992

Kerrigan DC, Annaswamy TM, The Functional Significance of Spasticity as
Assessed by Gait Analysis, J Head Trauma Rehabil 1997; 12(6): 29-39.

Mcguire JR, Effective Use of Chemodenervation and Chemical Neurolysis in
the Management of Poststroke Spasticity, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation:
2001:8 (1):47-55.

Riley PO. Della Croce U. Kerrigan DC. Propulsive adaptation to changing
gait speed. Journal of Biomechanics. 34(2):197-202, 2001 Feb.

Sutherland DH, Cooper L, Daniel D. The role of the ankle plantar
flexors in normal walking. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1980; 62:
354-363

Perry J, Gait Analysis: Normal and Pahological Function, Thorofare,
SLACK; 1992

Riley PO. Della Croce U. Kerrigan DC. Propulsive adaptation to changing
gait speed. Journal of Biomechanics. 34(2):197-202, 2001 Feb.

Visintin M, Barbeau H, Korner-Bitensky N, et al. A new approach to
retrain gait in stroke patients through body weight support and treadmill
stimulation. Stroke 1998:29; 1122-8.

Hesse S, Werner C, Uhlenbrock D, et al. An electromechanical gait
trainer for restoration of gait in hemiparetic stroke patients: preliminary
results. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2001; 13:157-165

Hesse S, Werner C, Von Frankenberg S, Bardeleben A, Treadmill training
with partial body weight support after stroke, Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am
2003; 14: S111-S123.

Middaugh SJ, Miller MG. Electromyographic feedback: effect on voluntary
muscle contractions in paretic subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1980;61:24-9.

Moreland JD, Thomson MA, Fuoco AR, Electromyographic biofeedback to
improve lower extremity function after stroke: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys
Med Rehabil 1998 Feb; 79(2):134-140.

Colborne R, Wright V, Naumann S. Feedback of triceps surae EMG in gait
of children with cerebral palsy: a controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
1994; 75: 40-5.

Irwin Miller, John E. Freund, "Probability and Statistics for Engineers,"
2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1977, pp.
272-275, 477-481.

Clancy EA. Electromyogram Amplitude Estimation with Adaptive Smoothing
Window Length. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 1999; 46(6):
717-729.

Murray MP, Spurr GB, Sepic SB, Gardner GM, Mollinger LA, Treadmill vs.
floor walking: kinematics, electromyogram, and heart rate. J. Appl.
Physiol. 1985. 59(1):87-91

Heus R, Wertheim AH, Havenith G, Human energy expenditure when walking on
a moving platform. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998 Mar:77(4):388-394

Hesse S, Konrad M, Uhlenbrock D, Treadmill walking with partial body
weight support versus floor walking in hemiparetic subjects. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil 1999 Apr;80(4):421-7

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From pepin.andre@uqam.ca Fri Apr 4 18:05:25 2003
Date: Fri, 28 Mar 2003 10:47:36 -0500
From: "[ISO-8859-1] \"Pépin, André\""
To: 'Sandhitsu R Das'
Subject: RE : [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing


Hi,

I have only one answer for you. Go on PubMed and look for David Winter's
work back in the 80's. Do a search from about 1976 and you'll find many
articles on what you're looking for.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/

Cheers!

André

--------------------------------------------------
André Pépin, Ph.D.; Agent de recherche
et de planification
Institut Santé et société
Université du Québec à Montréal
C.P. 8888, Succursale centre-ville
Montréal, Qc, Canada, H3C 3P8

Téléphone: (514) 987-3000 (poste 4995)
Télécopieur: (514) 987-6616
--------------------------------------------------


__________________________________________________ ____

From joelle@uni-wuppertal.de Fri Apr 4 18:05:25 2003
Date: Sun, 30 Mar 2003 13:40:41 +0200
From: Priv.-Doz. Dr. Th. Jollenbeck
To: Sandhitsu R Das
Subject: AW: [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing

Dear Sandhitsu,

I spent a long time in determination of the onset and offset of EMG.
The EMD at the beginning of a movement - I called it the electromechanical
activation delay (EMAD) - is about only just 20 ms in an isometric explosiv
contraction.
The EMD at the end of a movement - I called it the electromechanical
relaxation delay (EMRD) - is about 60 to 100 ms but with minor accuracy
because of methodological problems.
A part of the result including informations you are looking for are
published in english:
JOLLENBECK, T.: Determination of the onset of EMG and force in EMG-based
motion analysis - methodological problems and limitations. In: Hong, Y.
(ed.): International Research in Sports Biomechanics. Routledge 2002,
148-157. ISBN 0-415-26230-5
I have appended a pdf-copy of this publication.

If you need more informations please contact me.

Sincerely

Mit freundlichen Gru?en

Thomas Jollenbeck

--------------------------------------------------
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Thomas Jollenbeck
- Institut fur Biomechanik -
Klinik Lindenplatz
Orthopadische Rehabilitationsklinik mit sportmedizinischer Abteilung
Weslarner Stra?e 29
59505 Bad Sassendorf

Tel.: +49 2921 501-3414 (-4326 Sekr.)
Fax: +49 2921 501-4310
E-Mail:

Internet:
Forschung und Lehre:
http://www.uni-wuppertal.de/FB3/sport/bewegungslehre/joellenbeck
privat:
http://home.t-online.de/home/Thomas.Joellenbeck


__________________________________________________ _______________


From smlevin@biotensegrity.com Fri Apr 4 18:05:25 2003
Date: Sun, 30 Mar 2003 18:35:47 -0500
From: Stephen Levin
To: Sandhitsu R Das
Subject: Re: [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing

Sandhitsu,

This may be more of a hindrance than help.

Since you are familiar with Inman's book, 'Human Walking", look on page 96,
figure 5.10, from Lombard. If this holds in humans, (I assume we have
evolved as far), two joint muscles may function isometrically and
isotonically. Once the tone is set, EMGs are constant and, essentially,
electrically silent. It would be like setting the tension in a wire wheel
spoke and then keep rollin', rollin', rollin'. The spoke tension is
constant. Muscles would only contract once, then hold the tone. EMGs would
be worthless.

Stephen M. Levin, MD


__________________________________________________ _______________________

From THOMAS.CARRINGTON@bts.it Fri Apr 4 18:05:25 2003
Date: Mon, 31 Mar 2003 22:10:19 +0200
From: CARRINGTON THOMAS
To: Sandhitsu R Das
Subject: RE: [BIOMCH-L] Muscle activation timing

Dear Mr. Das,

Unfortunately, I don't have the data that you are looking for. However,
I wanted to introduce myself. Please review my attached letter and let
me know what you think.

I am also curious to know what kind of equipment you are using for your
studies??

Thanks and have a good day!

Sincerely,


Tom Carrington
General Manager
BTS North America
35 Tillinghast Trace
Newnan, GA 30265

Office#: 770.683.6805
Fax#: 770.683.6806
Mobile: 678.772.5897

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