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Greiner, Thomas M. Ph.d.
11-10-2003, 08:38 AM
Dear Friends:

I want to thank everyone who has taken the time to respond to my survey on
foot movements. The survey was sent to the Biomch-L (Biomechanics) and AACA
(Clinical Anatomy) list servers. I had a few responses from people that were
quoting out of a textbook (providing references and page numbers). I did not
include these responses in my survey results since I am more interested in
how people use and understand these terms, which is often very different
from textbook definitions. A comparison of textbook definitions will come
later. So far, I have received 34 responses from which I make the following
observations:

I received 12 distinctly different definitions of Inversion and Eversion, 12
definitions of Pronation, but only 11 different definitions of Supination.
On the surface, that amounts to about a 1 in 3 agreement on the use of these
terms.

Definitions of Inversion/Eversion were slightly less diverse among
respondents. Seventeen responses agreed on the definition of these terms -
no other definition had more than two supporters. Only 12 respondents could
agree on a modal definition for Pronation/Supination. There was a tie for
the second most popular answer for these terms. "No such term or
Inappropriate Term" had 6 supporters. A different 6 respondents came up with
a definition of Pronation/Supination that was the same as the most popular
definition for Inversion/Eversion. It is also interesting to note that all 6
agreed that Pronation/Supination are not synonyms for Inversion/Eversion,
but none could agree on a definition of Inversion/Eversion.

I tried to get a sense of whether the use of any of these terms centered on
any academic discipline or educational background. If there is a pattern
here I can't find it. I take some heart in that this lack of correlation was
also described by McDonald and Tavener (The Foot 9:6-11 1999) in their paper
on this topic. I also learned that there are some terms that I should also
be asking about (such as foot abduction/adduction, or varus/valgus). Perhaps
those can be topics of a future survey.

Finally, I note that only 4 out of the 34 respondents identified themselves
as "Specialists" or "Experts" in the foot. I would really like to hear from
the foot specialists out there. So, rather than list all the definitions
that I received, I would instead like to make second invitation to complete
this survey. I have attached another copy of the survey below. I also ask
for your help in casting a wider net for potential respondents. If any of
you have access to similar discussion groups in podiatry, orthopaedics,
sports medicine, or any other group that might have an interest in this
topic, please cross-post this survey to that group. Assuming that I get a
larger response, I will post a larger summary in the future.

Thank you for your assistance and for the responses that I have so far
received.

Thomas M. Greiner, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Anatomy
Department of Basic Sciences
New York Chiropractic College
Seneca Falls, NY 13148-0800 USA


Repeat of Survey
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Based solely upon your own understanding and experience (ie., without
reference to any written text), please define the following terms. When
possible, please also indicate the specific joint, or joints, where this
movement occurs.

Foot Pronation:

Foot Inversion:

Foot Supination:

Foot Eversion:

If you consider any of these terms to be synonymous, please so indicate.
Your definitions may state that one movement should be considered as a
component of another. Also, please indicate if you never use one, or more,
of these terms to describe foot motions.

Finally, so that I can get a sense of where this diversity is coming from,
please provide the following information about your background:

Highest Degree and Discipline:

Current Specialty:

Are you an active clinician?

Do you consider yourself to be a specialist, or an expert, on the foot?

It would be best if people responded to my personal email
(tgreiner@nycc.edu) rather than to the list as a whole. If there is
interest, I will post a summary of my findings to the list.

Thank you,

Thomas M. Greiner, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Anatomy
Department of Basic Sciences
New York Chiropractic College
Seneca Falls, NY 13148-0800 USA

Office Phone: (315) 568-3183
Gait Lab Phone: (315) 568-3150
Fax: (315) 568-3017
Email: tgreiner@nycc.edu

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