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Steve Cowin
01-21-2004, 05:02 AM
To Bone Researchers in the NYC area:
The NYC Mineralized Tissue Seminar will
now have its first spring seminar on Tuesday
night February 3rd. Abstracts for each of the
fall seminars are given below.

THE SPRING 2004 BONE SEMINAR SERIES

The Bone Seminar Series has as its focus the
mechanosensory system in bone. The series
sponsors eight seminars a year beginning in
September and continuing until April or May.
There are four seminars in the fall and four in
the spring of each year.

NEW WEBSITE FORMAT-Please Review
The seminar program and workshop information is
regularly posted on www.bonenet.net, a website
dedicated to research on the mechanosensory
system in bone. This website has been totally
renovated in January 2004, please check it out
and let us have your reaction.


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THE SPRING 2004 BONE SEMINAR PROGRAM

The seminar series will be held at the CUNY
Graduate Center on Thursdays from 7 to 8:30 PM.
All of the seminars will be held in Room 9204 on
the ninth floor. The CUNY Graduate Center is in
the Altman Building at the corner of 34th Street
and 5th Avenue, catty-corner from the Empire
State Building. There will be some socializing
before the seminar in the seminar room from 5:45
PM. Also, from 5:45 PM until 7 PM there will be
food (fruit plate, vegetable plate, cookies) and
drink (coffee and soft drinks) available in the
seminar room. There is also a Graduate Center
snack bar on the first floor; besides the usual
snacks and drinks the 365 Express also carries
beer and wine.
There are several subway lines nearby and it is
less than a ten-minute walk to either Grand
Central Station or Penn Station. There is money
to support parking for graduate students, apply
to Steve Cowin (contact information at the
bottom).

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FEBRUARY 3rd, 2004 in room 9204 at the CUNY Graduate Center at 7 PM.

Speaker: JOHN L. RICCI, PhD, Associate Professor,
Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New
York University College of Dentistry.

Title: TISSUE RESPONSE TO SCAFFOLD ARCHITECTURAL
FEATURES ACROSS LENGTH SCALES

Abstract: Cell and tissue response to any type of
implantable scaffold or biomaterial can be
controlled by a complex combination of the
chemical composition, surface microstructure,
macrostructure, engineering design, and control
of the functional environment of the implant. If
engineered properly, the biomaterial scaffold and
biological tissue can become a fully integrated
composite. In order to optimize the integration
of implant and tissue we must understand biologic
response across length scales from nanostructural
range to millimeter range, and utilize material
fabrication techniques that allow us to control
the structure of the biomaterial surface in these
same ranges. We divide these scales into four
functional ranges. The nanostructural range
(submicron range) represents surface chemistry,
the size scale in which the biomaterial or
scaffold surface interacts on the molecular level
with adsorbed biomolecules such as proteins and
extracellular matrix components. The
microstructural range (from ~1-20Ám) represents
the range in which the surface interacts with the
cell surface and directs cell attachment, cell
shape, migration, and spreading. The
mesostructural range (from ~20-1000Ám) represents
the range in which the scaffold structure
interacts with the tissue as a combination of
cells, extracellular matrix, and vessels.
Scaffold design versus nutrient diffusion now
becomes a consideration, as does pore and strut
dimension versus the sizes of ingrowing
structures such as blood vessels and bone
trabeculae. The fourth and largest range, the
macrostructural range (from 1-102mm) represents
the range in which the implant/scaffold interacts
with anatomic structures such as layers of skin
and subcutaneous tissue, or muscles, bone,
tendon, or organs.
Our recent research has utilized advances in
materials fabrication and surface modification
technologies to superimposed combinations of
defined meso- and microgeometries onto materials
with proven surface chemistry (nanostructure) to
create permanent and resorbable bone implants and
scaffolds. Over the last few years we have
developed dental implants with laser-machined,
controlled surface microgeometries that are now
in clinical use and are exhibiting excellent
clinical results. We are also investigating 3-D
printed ceramic and polymeric bone replacement
structures that utilize controlled mesostructure
and microstructure to enhance bone ingrowth and
integration. These are intended for use as bone
graft replacement materials. The current status
of these projects will be discussed along with
future implications.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF JACK RICCI: Active areas of
research involve cell and tissue response to
permanent and resorbable biomaterials and
implants. Development of experimental models for
the controlled investigation of bone and soft
tissue response to biomaterials, and
investigation and development of technologies for
enhancing tissue repair, regeneration, and tissue
integration of implantable biomedical devices.

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MARCH 2nd, 2004 in room 9204 at the CUNY Graduate Center at 7 PM.

Speaker: SHARON SWARTZ, PhD Associate Professor
of Biology, Department of Ecology and
Evolutionary Biology, Brown University,
Providence, RI

Title: "DATA MINING" EVOLUTION'S BONE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS

Abstract: One fundamental goal of bone biology is
to understand the determinants of the many levels
bone structure, from the molecular to the organ
system. In particular, insight into the role of
mechanical loading in dictating bone architecture
is critical to both improving human health and
discerning the evolutionary history of the
vertebrate skeleton. Evolutionary biologists
have taken advantage of the rich findings of
basic research in bone biology to improve our
understanding of the evolution of the skeletal
system, particularly for mammals. In turn, I
believe evolutionary biologists can contribute to
basic bone biology by drawing on the enormous
natural diversity of skeletal form and function
produced by millions of years of evolution. The
perspectives of comparative/historical biology
can be employed to test hypotheses concerning the
relationships between the mechanics and
architecture of bone, and to develop new
hypotheses for future experimental work.
Implicitly or explicitly, our starting point is
that any theory that relates mechanical load to
skeletal structure should be applicable not only
to humans but also to related species - perhaps
to other apes, other primates, other mammals,
other homeothermic vertebrates. Comparisons of
bone form among species that differ greatly in
their locomotor behavior and hence typical bone
loading regimes can therefore be used to test how
broadly a particular explanation extends. One
case that may illuminate our understanding of the
skeleton is that of bats, one of the most
evolutionarily successful groups of mammals. The
function and morphology of the upper limb (wing)
skeleton of bats shares both similarities to and
differences from that of other mammals. The
bones of the bat wing rarely experience impact
loads of any kind, and instead are subjected to
large aerodynamic forces distributed to the
skeleton by mechanically complex wing membrane
skin. Both magnitude and distribution of bone
strains differ between the bones of bat limbs and
those of other mammals, as do a number of
features of the form and material composition of
bat wing bones. The implications of our
observations on the skeletons of bats and other
vertebrates for understanding bone as a
mechanically responsive tissue will be explored.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF SHARON SWARTZ: Mechanics
and aerodynamics of bat flight, including
specific roles of wing skin and bone mechanical
properties and structural design; scale effects
in skeletal architecture; evolution of mammalian
locomotion and skeletal diversity.

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APRIL 13th, 2004 in room 9204 at the CUNY Graduate Center at 7 PM.

Speaker: JANET RUBIN MD, Professor of Medicine,
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Emory
University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA

Title: TURNING MECHANICAL SIGNALS INTO BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Abstract: Biophysical input generated during
normal physiologic loading is a major determinant
of bone mass and morphology. Our laboratory's
interest is in how bone cells sense and transduce
signals generated during loading, and how this
cellular response leads to skeletal adaptation to
its mechanical environment. We have shown that
substrate strain regulates gene expression in
bone stromal cells, decreasing expression of
RANKL and increasing expression of eNOS/nitric
oxide. These changes generate a local
environment that is inhibitory for osteoclast
recruitment. The ability of mechanical strain to
induce this functional response requires
activation of the ERK1/2 MAP-Kinase pathway. The
proximal signaling cascade leading to ERK1/2
activation is stunningly specific, and suggests
that the putative mechanotransducer occupies a
discrete membrane location. Distal to ERK1/2
activation, we will also consider possible
mechanisms by which strain may inhibit RANKL gene
transcription through altering chromatin
interactions with the RANKL promoter. By
defining the mechanisms involved in strain
regulation of osteoclast formation we hope to
generate new paradigms for understanding how
cells convert mechanical information into
biological effects.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF JANET RUBIN: Mechanical
and hormonal control of bone remodeling, gene
therapy systems, tumor metastases in bone

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May 4th, 2003 in room 9204 at the CUNY Graduate Center at 7 PM.

Speaker: LIYUN WANG PhD, Postdoctoral Research
Fellow, Department of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai
School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10029

Title: IN SITU STUDY OF SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN THE
BONE LACUNAR-CANALICULAR SYSTEM USING
FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING

Abstract: Osteocytes are the most numerous cells
in bone and participate in many physiologically
important functions including
mechanotransduction, damage repair via targeted
remodeling, and calcium homeostasis. As
osteocytes are completely encased in the
mineralized matrix of bone, their ability to
survive and function is entirely dependent on
mass transport through the small interconnecting
channels (~200 nm wide) of the
lacunar-canalicular system. Transport of solutes
(nutrients and bioactive molecules) through the
lacunar-canalicular system occurs by diffusion
and convection. However, attempts to study solute
transport mechanisms in the lacunar-canalicular
system have been limited principally to either
computational approaches or experimental
approaches based on examining tracer
localization/movement in tissue sections or
blocks. These have been unable to elucidate the
specifics of local factors influencing transport
(molecular size, local permeability) or to
unravel the complexities of diffusion versus
convection in vivo. To this end, we developed a
novel imaging approach that allows real time
visualization and measurement of tracer transport
via the lacunar-canalicular system in intact
bones. We adapted Fluorescence Recovery After
Photobleaching (FRAP), a technique that has been
used for studying molecule translocation on cell
membrane, inside cellular compartments, and in
tumor tissues, to study tracer diffusion in
intact mouse tibia immediately post-mortem. To
obtain quantitative data on tracer diffusivity,
we developed a two-compartment model to describe
tracer influx to the photobleached lacuna
following Fick's law. Our current studies are
focused in understanding the relative
contributions of diffusion, convection due to
vascular pressure and convection due to
mechanical loading in solute transport in bone,
with the long term goal of understanding
osteocyte functions and cellular responses to
physiological challenges.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF LIYUN WANG: Studying
transport phenomena and cellular responses to
physiological stimuli (e.g., mechanical loading)
in biological and engineered porous tissues using
experimental, mathematical, and computational
approaches

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ORGANIZATION OF THE SEMINAR SERIES

The Interinstitutional Steering Committee (ISC)
will make decisions concerning the seminar
series, including the selection of speakers.
Interesting, high quality seminar speakers are
sought. Seminar attendees are asked to help in
the identification of investigators with new
results relative to bone research, questions of
current interest and distinguished bone
researchers visiting New York City who might be
persuaded to present a seminar. Presentations by
advanced graduate students and post-docs are
encouraged.
The members of the Interinstitutional Steering
Committee (ISC) are Adele Boskey (Head of the
Mineralized Tissue Section at the Hospital for
Special Surgery and Professor of Biochemistry at
the Weill Medical College of Cornell University),
Timothy Bromage (Director of the Hard Tissue
Research Unit and Professor of Anthropology at
Hunter College of CUNY), Stephen C. Cowin
(Professor of Biomedical and Mechanical
Engineering at the City College of the City
University of New York (CUNY)), Susannah P.
Fritton (Director of the Tissue Mechanics
Laboratory, New York Center for Biomedical
Engineering and Associate Professor of Biomedical
Engineering at the City College of CUNY), X.
Edward Guo (Director of the Bone Bioengineering
Laboratory and Assistant Professor of
Bioengineering at Columbia University), Clinton
T. Rubin (Professor and Chair of the Department
of Biomedical Engineering, and Director of the
Center for Advanced Technology in Medical
Biotechnology at SUNY Stony Brook) and Mitchell
B. Schaffler (Director of Orthopaedic Research
and Professor of Orthopedics, Cell Biology and
Anatomy at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine).
Each of these people represents a community
consisting of senior bone research people,
graduate students and, in most cases,
undergraduate students.

PLEASE DIRECT YOUR QUESTIONS AND FEEDBACK TO

Stephen C. Cowin
New York Center for Biomedical Engineering
Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering
School of Engineering
The City College
138th Street and Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031-9198, U. S. A.

Phone (212) 799-7970 (Office at Home)
Fax (212) 799-7970 (Office at Home)
Phone (212) 650-5208 (Work)
Email



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For bone research information, visit .
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PREFERRED MAILING ADDRESS
Stephen C. Cowin
2166 Broadway
Apartment 12D
New York, NY 10024

Phone (212) 799-7970 (Office at Home)
Fax (212) 799-7970 (Office at Home)
Phone (212) 650-5208 (Work)
Fax (212) 650-6727 (Work)
Email or

WORK ADDRESS:
Stephen C. Cowin
New York Center for Biomedical Engineering
Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering
The City College
138th Street and Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031-9198, U. S. A.
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For information about the New York Center for Biomedical
Engineering visit
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