View Full Version : Cardan sequence and result accuracy

Dan Siddall
09-21-2004, 06:17 PM
Dear colleagues


I am currently in a short placement studying Biomechanical Function and
Evaluation as part of a two-year training course to become a Clinical
Engineer with the NHS in Britain. As part of the very short placement I
have to carry out a very short research project. I am investigating the use
of a new 3D gait analysis model modified from the traditional Davis model
and using the functional hip joint centre method. The basis for designing
this model is to produce more accurate results for knee ab-adduction during
the gait cycle of large patients with total knee replacements.

The project has progressed very well and results are likely to be published
in the next year or so, however, I am having problems finding justification
for the Cardan sequence (in Visual 3D software) I have used for initial
results. Below is a list of papers I have read or am waiting for delivery
of. The question I am trying to answer is, if a joint angle result is
affected by the Cardan sequence is it correct to assume that the first
rotation in the sequence will have the most accurate result??? Please don’t
suggest other co-ordinate systems or joint angle measurement protocols as I
have stressed the time constraints on the project and I must use Visual 3D,
which uses the Cardan/Euler method.

Any comments, suggested papers (hopefully available on-line due to time) or
answers!!! Would be greatly appreciated

Dr Dan Siddall, Trainee Clinical Scientist
Queens Medical Centre
Nottingham UK

Grood and Suntay, A joint co-ordinate system for the clinical description of
three-dimensional motions; applications to the knee,1983, Journal of
biomechanical engineering, 105(2), 136-44.

Chao EY, 1980, Justification of triaxial goniometer for the measurement of
joint rotation, Journal of biomechanics 13(12), 989-1006.

MacWilliams BA et al,A repeatable alignment method and local coordinate
descriptio for knee joint testing and kinematic measurement, 1998, Journal
of biomechanics, 31(10), 946-950.

Cole GK et al, 1993, Application of the joint coordinate system to
three-dimensional joint attitude and movement representation: a
standardisation proposal, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 115(4A),

Woltring HJ, 1994,3-D attitude representation of human joints: a
standardisation proposal, Journal of Biomechanics, 27(12), 1399-1414.

Tupling SJ et al, 1987, Use of Cardan angles to locate rigid bodies in
three-dimensional space, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing,
25(5), 527-532.

Schache AG et al, 2001, The eefcet of differing Cardan angle sequence on
three dimensional lumbo-pelvic angular kinematics during running, Medical
Engineering and Physics, 23,2 493 – 501.

Karduna AR et al, 2000, Scapular kinematic: effects of altering the Euler
angle sequence of rotations, Journal of Biomechanics, 33, 1063 – 1068.

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