View Full Version : Posting of Responses - snowboard resources

Dominic Mckee Hull
12-01-2004, 01:24 AM
John Farr

Maybe this will help:

Kinematics Measurements of Snowboarders' Ankles

FASTRAK, with four six-degree-of-freedom position sensors, was
converted into a fully portable system operating on two 12-volt batteries
and connected to laptop computer. The sensors were attached to the shanks
and feet of a snowboarder.


Hazel Turner
Hi -

I don't know much about the area myself, but your email reminded me of a
paper submitted to a conference I attended last year:

"Rotation of the Ankle Joint Complex in Snowboarding"
Delorme,S, Tavoularis,S, Lamontagne,M.

The conference was the IASTED international conference on Biomechanics 2003
in Rhodes, Greece.

The Authors were from the University of Ottowa, Canada.

The best bet is probably to contact the authors directly, as they might be
able to provide more than the abstract in the proceedings (although it is a
5 page abstract with quite a lot of detail), and presumably know more about
what work has been done in this area.

If you can't find anything else, let me know and I can send you a (dodgy!)
copy of that abstract from my copy of the proceedings.

The basis of the paper is testing whether stiffer boots would reduce

Hope this is of some use to you.

Good luck!

Hazel Turner

Andrea Tami
I'm a post-doc in biomedical engineering at the Case Western Reserve University
in Cleveland. I'm originally from Switzerland and I'm also a snow-board
instructor. The topic of your dissertation project sounds very interesting.
I'll see if I can find some material for your research from friends back home,
but I cannot promise a lot, especially regarding basic biomechanics.
Last year I got exposed to some teaching here in Ohio and I noticed some
differences between the "American" and the "Swiss" methods. I'm planning to do
more this year and to participate to courses, so that I can figure out if it is
a "local" (i.e. "Ohioan") thing, or if the American and Swiss/European teaching
are indeed based on different body movements. I'll let you know what I find
Would it be possible for me to have a copy of your project when you are done?

have a nice day,


I just did a quick MedLine search on the keyword "snowboard" and found 56
entries, all but one focusing on injuries related to snowboarding. I've
attached the only title that looked at all helpful to you however it's in
German which you may have better luck getting a hold of than I. Based on my
quick search, it does not appear much has been done in the area of biomechanics
(though there has been plenty in skiing. There was an interesting one by C.F.
Ettlinger et al entitled "A Method to Help Reduce the Risk of Serious Knee
Sprains Incurred in Alpine Skiing." Perhaps some of the methods might be
useful to you despite the differences in technique.)

Dingerkus ML. Imhoff A. Hipp E. [Snowboard sports technique, injury pattern,
prevention].[erratum appears in Fortschr Med 1997 Mar 30;115(9):43]. [Review]
[16 refs] [German] [Journal Article. Review. Review, Tutorial] Fortschritte der
Medizin. 115(5):26-8, 30-1, 1997 Feb 20.

Hopefully you'll find more helpful responses. Good luck.

Lisa Case
Graduate Student Research Assistant
Biomechanics Research Lab
University of Michigan

Ronald Burger
my name is ronald burger. i'm a assistant at the university of mainz in
germany. (one of) my (main-) research project is the method to teaching
snowboarding with the help of biomechanics. so i have wrote different papers
in german-language about this problem.
in this papers i sign the way from the psychological interest of the boarder
(flow-event) to a research with 100Hz kinematografy from turns of 5 boarders
with a high level license on the stubaital-gletscher (?).
all older studies i was finding, desrcribe the turns with hardboots on
the next paper design the biomechanical methodology of learning-steps.
at the next weekend i have a keynote about a new teaching plan for skiing
and boarding.
best regards

Dr. sportwiss. Ronald Burger
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Fachbereich Sport
Abt.: Trainings- und Bewegungswissenschaft
Albert Schweitzer-Straße 22
55099 Mainz

Don Hoover
I would start with the proceedings of the recent biomechanics conference
held at the University of California-Davis. I saw a handful of titles
(ie, the friction of snow, etc) that would give you a foundation to get
started. I'll forward the link in the event that you didn't see it last



You should try looking at the conference presentations at this years
Canadian Society for biomechanics in Halifax, it was held in August. One
of the presentations had to do with snowboarding. Another place you
could try is www.health.uottawa.ca/hklab and check the masters thesis
and undergrad projects that we post there, i think one had to do with
snowboarding but i'm not sure.

good luck!

Andrew Post

F Borg
I have not come across biomechanical snowboard stuff that i can recall,
but the other day i was playing aorund with our force plate here when a
guy passsing by got interested. He thought the system could be used to
teach his kids how to stear the board (shifiting weight etc). I hade
made a system which showed the COP (center of pressure) in real time on
the wall (using a video projector). This can be used a as a feedback
system. So one idea could be to investigate the use of force plates for
some aspects of the snowboard training.

Regards Frank B

Tom Coeckelberghs
The professor who helped me with my paper has forwarded your mail to me.
My name is Tom Coeckelberghs. I work for the Belgian Snowboard
Federation. I organise events, contests and snowboarding education. I've
studied at the University of Leuven where I graduated in 1999. My
research paper was all about snowboarding for the same reasons as you. I
compared muscle activity in freestyle and slalom snowboarding for
muscles of the legs (gastrocnemius, restus femoris, vastus medialis and
lateralis, tibialis anterior and biceps femoris). I compared rear leg
with front leg, frontside and backside turn, in slalom (hard boots and
narrow board) and freestyle (soft boots with flexible and large board).
I used one particular technique for both snowboard styles (In English I
would call it "stretch-turn"). I used EMG signals of the selected
muscles and used a little machine to measure the knee angle. Based on
those results I divided the back and frontside turns in different
phases. I think the article was not bad because I went to San Fransisco
for a congress of sports biomechanics where I had a poster session about
my paper. Of course, only the young scientists were interested in
snowboarding... but who cares, it was a free holiday.
A few of my friends who graduated the year after me did also a little
investigation about snowboarding.
If you want, I can search the articles and send them to you, either by
mail or post? OK?

With kind regards,

Adam Henderson
I am also a student in the field of biomechanics and a former snowboard
instructor. I am very interested in hearing anything that people report
back to you.

This summer at the Canadian Society for Biomechanics there was a
presentation on simulated snowboarding landings by
Uwe Kersting, from the University of Auckland. It was interesting to
see some work on the biomechanics of snowboarding. Here is a copy of
the abstract.

David P. Dillard"
Here are some citations that may prove useful to you. A significant
portion of the literature having to do with snowboarding has to do with
injuries that is in the direction of biomechanics and snowboarding.

Please pardon duplication of citations. I tried to catch these, but
as several resources were consulted, some duplicate citations may
have slipped through.

Bladin C. McCrory P. Pogorzelski A.
Snowboarding injuries : current trends and future directions.
Sports Medicine.
34(2):133-9, 2004.

Richards DP. Clark P. Howard A.
Multiple spine fractures in an adolescent snowboarder: case report.
Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care.
50(4):730-2, 2001 Apr.

Staebler MP. Moore DC. Akelman E. Weiss AP. Fadale PD. Crisco JJ 3rd.
The effect of wrist guards on bone strain in the distal forearm.
American Journal of Sports Medicine.
27(4):500-6, 1999 Jul-Aug.

Estes M. Wang E. Hull ML.
Analysis of ankle deflection during a forward fall in snowboarding.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.
121(2):243-8, 1999 Apr.

Biasca N. Battaglia H. Simmen HP. Disler P. Trentz O.
[An overview of snow-boarding injuries].

98(1):33-9, 1995 Jan.

Robinson M.
Hazards of alpine sport.
Australian Family Physician.
20(7):961-2, 965-6, 970, 1991 Jul.

Ross JA.
Winter sports medicine and the podiatrist...
first in a seven-part sports podiatry series.
Podiatry Management.
22(8):63-4, 66, 68-70, 2003 Oct.

Funk JR. Srinivasan SCM. Crandall JR.
Snowboarder's talus fractures experimentally produced by
eversion and dorsiflexion.
American Journal of Sports Medicine.
31(6):921-8, 2003 Nov-Dec.

Petrofsky J. Meyer J. Magsino R. Zook S. Kao JK. Laymon M.
Biomechanics in physically disabled monoskiers versus
conventional downhill skiers and snowboarders.
Journal of Applied Research.
3(2):124-36, 2003 Spring. (39 ref 3 bib)

Petrofsky J. Magsino R. Zook S. Kao JK. Meyer J. Laymon M.
Energy expenditure of disabled vs non-disabled skiers.
British Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation.
10(2):65-71, 2003 Feb.

Laskowski ER. Snow skiing.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America.
10(1):189-211, 1999 Feb.

Pier J. The biomechanics of skiing injuries.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews.
11(3):587-610, 1997 Oct.

Hart, L.
Get wise to basic mechanics of snowboarding.
Pro rider ,
Winter 2002, 28-30;32;34;56

Colorado snowboarding injury study: eight year results
Janes, Peter C.
Abbott, Paul Jr.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 141-149

Risk factors in skiing and snowboarding in Austria
Boldrino, Christian (Rosehn); Furian, Gerald
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 166-174

Loads transmitted in the practice of snowboarding
Bally, Alexis
Taverney, Olivier
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 196-205

Epidemiology of snowboarding injuries: 1988 to 1995
Shealy, Jasper E.
Ettlinger, Carl F.;
Buonomo, Vincenzo
ASTM Special Technical Publication
v 1289, May, 1997, p 49-59

Snowboarding injuries
Janes, Peter C.
Fincken, Gerald T.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1182, 1993, p 255-261

Age and gender: two epidemiological factors in skiing and
snowboarding injury
Cadman, Robert
Macnab, Andrew J.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 58-65

Relationship between time course of Ruffier index and
stress-dependent heart rate during eight days of
Hofmann, Peter
Stockinger, Bernhard
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 311-319

Rotation of the ankle joint complex in snowboarding
Delorme, S.
Tavoularis, S.
Lamontagne, M.
Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on
Biomechanics, 2003,
p 210-214

Rates and modalities of death in the U.S.:
Snowboarding and skiing differences - 1991/92 through 1998/99
Shealy, J.E.
Ettlinger, C.F.
Johnson, R.J.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1397, 2001, p 132-138

Injuries in alpine skiing, telemarking, and snowboarding
Ekeland, Arne
Rodven, Andreas
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1397, 2001, p 87-94

Physics and Snowboarding
Swinson, D. B.
Physics Teacher
v 32, n 9, 1994, p 530

Snowboarding standards: Catching air
Walikis, Rob
Standardization News
v 24, n 2, Feb, 1996, p 22

Ski field injuries: the snowboarders
Lamont, Michael K.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 82-86

Snowboarder's talus fracture
Paul, Carol C.
Janes, Peter C.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 388-393

Snowboard vs. downhill skiing injuries
Shealy, Jasper E.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1182, 1993, p 241-254

Dynamic bending analysis of snowboards
Sakata, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Shigehiro
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/
Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers
Part C, v 61, n 584, Apr, 1995, p 1469-1475

Release binding for snowboards
Bally, Alexis
Shneegans, Francois
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 132-137

Comparison of knowledge and behavior in young injured and
non-injured skiers
Macnab, Andrew J.
Cadman, Robert E.
Greenlaw, Julia V.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 3-10

Robotics applied to sports engineering
Hasegawa, Kenji
Shimizu, Shiro
Yoshizawa, Masatada
Advanced Robotics
v 14, n 5, 2000, p 377-379

Ski injury epidemiology: A two year epidemiology study of
injuries with skiboards
Greenwald, Richard M.
Nesshoever, Mike
Boynton, Melbourne D.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1440, 2003, p 113-120

Physically based modeling and control of turning
van de Panne, Michiel
Fiume, Eugene
Vranesic, Zvonko
CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing
v 55, n 6, Nov, 1993, p 507-521

Ski injury epidemiology: A short-term epidemiology study
of injuries with skiboards
Greenwald, Richard M.
Nesshoever, Mike
Boynton, Melbourne D.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1397, 2001, p 119-126

Free vibrations of a snowboard
Sakata, Toshiyuki
Kawai, Shigehiro
Kawada, Fumio
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences
v 38, n 6, Jun, 1996, p 579-588

Infrared thermal analysis of ski and snowboard binding systems
Roberts, Charles C. Jr.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
v 2766, 1996, p 110-120

Effects of mechanical properties of snowboard on snowboard turn
Hosokawa, Kenji
Ando, Shinya
Kawai, Shigehiro
Sakata, Toshiyuki
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/
Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Part C, v 70, n 1, January, 2004, p 221-228

Method for measuring the mechanical properties of snowboard boot and
binding systems in bending
Crisco, J.J.
Torres, K.
Greenwald, R.M.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division
(Publication) BED
v 42, 1999, p 709-710

Cure monitoring of composite laminates used in the manufacturing of
Pelczarski, Noel V. (Univ of Vermont); Huston, Dryver Source: Proceedings
of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
Engineering, v 3993, 2000, p 228-239
Database: Compendex
Abstract / Links | Detailed Record / Links

38. Ski and snowboard vibration
Glenne, Bard
DeRocco, Anthony
Foss, Gary
S V Sound and Vibration
v 33, n 1, Jan, 1999, p 30-33

Development and validation of an apparatus for determining
snowboard boot stiffness
Torres, Katherine
Crisco, Joseph J.
Greenwald, Richard M.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1397, 2001, p 68-83

Physics of skiing: The ideal-carving equation and its applications
Jentschura, U.D.
Fahrbach, F.
Canadian Journal of Physics
v 82, n 4, April, 2004, p 249-261

Gender-related injury patterns in skiing
Shealy, Jasper E.
Ettlinger, Carl F.
ASTM Special Technical Publication
n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 45-57

Title: Biomechanics of lower leg injury in snowboarding
Author(s): Grewal, Devinder Singh.
Year: 2002
Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D. in Engineering-Mechanical Engineering)--
University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2002.

I hope that this list of source citations will help you with your

McClellan, Annie Jeanne"
did a quick search on the SportDiscus database and found the following:

1. Kinematic analysis of snowboard turn - comparison with ski turn. Ikegami, Y.;
XVIth ISB Tokyo Congress, August 25-29, 1997, hosted by the University of Tokyo.
of abstracts, International Society of Biomechanics, p.81.

2. An analysis of the effect of a snowboard wrist guard on the dynamic impact
of human cadaver forearms. Greenwald, R.M.; In Proceedings of NACOB'98 the Third
American Congress on Biomechanics, combined with the Twenty-Second Annual
Conference of
the American Society of Biomechanics and the Tenth Biennial Conference of the
Society of Biomechanics/Societe Canadienne de Biomechanique, s.l., p.533-534.

3. The development of a snowboard-specific equilibrium and coordination testing
training device. Greil, T.; In 2nd International Congress on Skiing and
January 9-15, 2000, St. Christoph a. Arlberg, Austria. Abstract book, St.
Christoph a.
Arlberg, Austria, s.n., c2000, p.204-205.

I don't know how much help those would be on their own (you may have found them
on your
own already), but maybe if you can get to those references they would have
worth checking out or name researchers in that field.

good luck!

Kevin Carlson
We have attempted to do just such a study and were not successful in
finding any previous literature. We completed some pilot work
comparing two different turns two winters ago and are going to
continute that work this winter. Please keep me posted as to how your
study progresses. We are particularly interested in your methodology.
I can send you what we have done up to this point if you are

am not and have never been directly involved in snowboarding research.
However, I do know there is a great deal of ski research out there. With this
information, you can devise methods of taking measurements on a snowboard,
similar to those that have been accomplished through skiing. That's pretty
vague, though.

I do know you can search PubMed for such research articles and many will show
up. Just figure out the correct keywords. (Snowboarding, gait, mobility,
biomechanics, pressure distribution, etc). I know there have been a couple of
studies from Canada looking at the biomechanics and resulting plantar pressure
distribution during ski turns. They had the same goals as yours.

As a basic answer, there has been plenty of research accomplished with
snowboarding. J. of Biomechanics, American College of Sports Medicine, Eur. J.

of Physiology, Amer. J. of Physiology, Eur. J. of Sports Physiology,
International J. of Biomechanics, and many more have all published snowboarding

related articles. You can also check on the Soloman R&D, Burton R&D and other
snowboarding manufacturers websites for a name in Research and Development. E-
mail them and they should be able to send you a bibliography of published
articles they have put out over the past x-number of years, usually 5 or 6.

I hope these ideas help.


Christopher Mina

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania USA
Undergraduate, 2006
BioEngineering / Exercise Physiology

McClymont, Doug"
We have a machine for teaching aerials to snowboarders! I was only
involved on the periphery so you might contact Richard Green at UC.

Say hello to Matt Greig for me will you, ask him how the digitising is


I am forwarding you some information from a friend of mine that may be
able to assist you with your project. Please read below.

Best Regards

Please tell Dominic Mckee, That I may have a friend who could help
His name is Stephen Tamaribuchi. He is a biomechanical consultant for the
athletes and other sports champions. He has worked with Bode Miller the
Skier and worked with professional champion snowboarders in fine tuning their

You can find his website through my website at www.endlesslope.com

Go to my "Hot Stuff" page and look for the links to Biogrip and or e3.
You will
also se that I have his logos that are also linked to his site.

Also, I maybe working with an Orthopedic Physician regarding
proprioception sensory
regarding skiing and snowboarding. Something that is related to the
and kinesiology of skiing and snowboarding.

Please tell Dominic Mckee if I can get any information learned about the
biomechanics of snowbaorders. I am always interested in improving my
abilities for my students.

Dominic Mckee can also contact me directly if s/he has any questions. It
would be
good to exchange ideas.

Sam Morishima
(916) 736 0432
2540 Donner Way
Sacramento, CA. 95818

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