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Steve Cowin
09-09-2005, 05:50 AM
To Bone Researchers in the NYC area:

The Fall 2005 Bone Seminar Series begins on Tuesday, October 18 with
a presentation by Johanna Warshaw, Ph.D. candidate in physical
anthropology at the City University of New York. She will speak on "
DIVERSITY IN PRIMATE BONE MICROSTRUCTURE."

The Seventh International Bone Fluid Flow Workshop will be held on
September 21, 2005 at the CUNY Graduate Center in the space in which
many of the seminars are held. The fall seminar series is beginning a
bit later than usual this year and, due to the Workshop, consists of
three rather than the usual four seminars.

Details about the workshop and all seminars appear below as well as
on our website: http://bonenet.net

The contents of the rest of this email are as follows:
[1] Bone Seminar Series: General Information
[2] October 18, 2005 Seminar: Johanna Warshaw, Ph.D. candidate
[3] November 15, 2005 Seminar: Lawrence G. Raisz, M.D.
[4] December 13, 2005 Seminar: Philipp Mayer-Kuckuk, Ph.D.
[5] "Pinch Hitter": Mia Mia Thi, Ph.D.

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THE SPRING 2005 BONE SEMINAR SERIES

The Bone Seminar Series has as its focus the mechanosensory system in
bone. Seminar program and workshop information is regularly posted on
www.bonenet.net, a website dedicated to research on the
mechanosensory system in bone. Please send comments on the website to
the webmaster, Bill Green or to me
. Please let us have your comments.

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THE SPRING 2005 BONE SEMINAR PROGRAM

Seminars will be held Center Tuesdays from 7:00 to 8:30 PM at the
locations indicated in the CUNY Graduate Center at the corner of 34th
Street and 5th Avenue, catty-corner from the Empire State Building.
There will be some socializing before the seminar in the seminar room
from 5:45 PM. Also, from 5:45 PM until 7:00 PM there will be food
(fruit plate, vegetable plate, cookies) and drink (coffee and soft
drinks) available in the seminar room. There is also a Graduate
Center snack bar on the first floor.
There are several subway lines nearby, and it is less than a
ten-minute walk to either Grand Central Station or Penn Station.
There is money to support parking for graduate students; apply to
Steve Cowin (contact information at the bottom).

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OCTOBER 18, 2005 in room 9204 at the CUNY Graduate Center at 7:00 PM

Speaker: Johanna Warshaw, Ph.D. candidate in Physical Anthropology at
the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in the New
York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology; Hard Tissue Research
Unit, Department of Biomaterials, New York University College of
Dentistry

Title: DIVERSITY IN PRIMATE BONE MICROSTRUCTURE

Abstract: The microscopic organization of bone constitutes an
important source of information about the growth patterns and
behaviors characterizing organismal life histories. Studies have
shown that bone microstructure reflects ontogenetic variation in bone
depositional rates, and mechanical influences on skeletal development
and maintenance. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize
variability in primates, this study examines several bone
microstructural features from a broadly comparative perspective. I
present results from analyses of primary bone tissue types, secondary
intracortical remodeling and collagen fiber orientation at the
mid-diaphysis of the femur, humerus, radius, ulna and tibia. These
features were examined on 100 micron-thick cross-sections, imaged in
conventional transmitted and circularly polarized light microscopy.
The research demonstrates extensive variability in the organization
of tissues among primates, which has not previously been
systematically documented. Such diversity is suggested to reflect
element-specific growth patterns, and taxon differences in life
history and locomotor adaptations. This work forms a foundation for
future investigations of bone microstructural variability, which may
include paleontological taxa and implications for the reconstruction
of fossil primate and mammalian biology.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF Johanna Warshaw: Comparative primate and
non-primate mammalian bone biology and microanatomy; bone
micro-anatomical correlates of locomotor adaptation, life history and
phylogeny in prosimians and South American monkeys; early primate
paleobiology and evolution.

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NOVEMBER 15, 2005 in the Martin E. Segal Theatre at the
CUNY Graduate Center at 7:00 PM.

Speaker: LAWRENCE G. RAISZ, M.D., Board of Trustees Distinguished
Professor of Medicine and Director, Musculoskeletal Institute,
University of Connecticut Health Center

Title: PATHOGENESIS OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Abstract: Osteoporosis is a disorder in which decreased bone strength
leads to increased risk of fractures. Strength can be reduced because
of failure to achieve optimal peak bone mass and architecture,
excessive bone resorption or inadequate bone formation. Clinically
all three mechanisms are likely to operate in patients with
osteoporosis. There is substantial new information concerning the
genetic determinants of optimal peak bone mass and strength as well
as the influence of lifestyle and nutrition. Excessive bone
resorption appears to have two major causes, estrogen deficiency and
deficiency of calcium and vitamin D leading to secondary
hyperparathyroidism. Inadequate bone formation can clearly be caused
by glucocorticoid excess, but the mechanism of decreased bone
formation in other forms of osteoporosis is not clear. Biochemical
and morphologic data suggest that increased bone resorption with
inadequate local bone formation responses during remodeling, despite
an overall increase in bone formation rate, represent the most common
pathogenetic picture in postmenopausal and age related osteoporosis.
While the specific pathways by which estrogen deficiency causes bone
loss are not fully understood one concept is that there is an
impaired response to mechanical loading. In addition estrogen may
regulate the many cytokines and growth factors that have been
implicated as mediators of excessive bone resorption and inadequate
bone formation. Much of our current information is based on animal
models and the relevance to human disease is not well documented. New
molecular and biochemical approaches as well as more extensive
epidemiologic studies will not only produce a better understanding of
the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but may also lead to ways to
differentiate the specific pathogenetic mechanisms among individual
patients and to targeted therapy.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF LARRY RAISZ: Dr. Raisz has been studying
factors influencing bone metabolism in the laboratory for many years,
his current interest is in the mechanisms of the effects of
prostaglandins on bone, particularly with regard to the specific
receptors that mediate these effects. He also is involved in clinical
research on mechanisms of estrogen action and on the effects of
calcium and vitamin D on bone metabolism.

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DECEMBER 13, 2005 in room 9204 at the CUNY Graduate Center at 7:00 PM

Speaker: PHILIPP MAYER-KUCKUK, Ph.D., In Vivo Cellular Molecular
Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Department
of Pharmacology, UMDNJ Musculoskeletal Integrity Program, Hospital
for Special Surgery

Title: STRATEGIES FOR IMAGING BONE CELL BIOLOGY
IN MICE AND MAN

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**THE PINCH HITTER**

If, for any reason, the designated speaker cannot speak on a
particular evening, the pinch hitter will substitute if s(he) does
not have a previous commitment. The designated pinch hitter will
fulfill that role for only one seminar series. If the pinch hitter
does not speak in the series in which s(he) is the designated pinch
hitter, s(he) will have a regularly scheduled seminar in the
following series. There will be a new pinch hitter for every seminar
series.

The pinch hitter for the fall 2005 series is Mia Mia Thi. If she is
not called upon to present in the fall, then she will present in the
spring 2006 series.


Speaker: Mia Mia Thi, Ph.D. Research Fellow, Department of Biomedical
Engineering, The City College of New York, and Albert Einstein
College of Medicine

Title: CELLULAR COMMUNICATION AND ADAPTATION OF CULTURED BONE CELLS
IN RESPONSE TO FLUID SHEAR STRESS

Abstract: Cell-cell mechanotransduction which involves sensing
mechanical stimuli such as fluid induced shear stress and spreading
the signal in the connected network of bone cells is still not well
understood. Culture studies have demonstrated that fluid flow is a
more potent stimulator of bone cells than is substrate deformation
itself (Owen et al., 1997; You et al., 2000). Previous experimental
studies have been shown that bone cells release signaling molecules
such as prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO), Ca++, and other second
messengers in response to the fluid shear stress (Reich et al., 1990;
Hillsley and Frangos, 1994; Klein-Nulend et al., 1995; Hung et al.,
1996; Cheng et al., 2003). One possible mechanism of bone remodeling
by which second messenger signals spread throughout the bone cell
network involves gap junction channels that connect osteoblasts and
bone-lining cells along the surface of Haversian and Volkmann canals
and osteocytes that are embedded within the bone matrix (Jeansonne et
al., 1979; Doty, 1981). We have shown that in cultured bone cells
fluid shear stress modifies expression, function and distribution of
junctional proteins (Cx43, Cx45, and ZO-1) to an extent that depends
on the magnitude of the shear stress. Our recent microarray data
provide an overview gene expression of various proteins associated
with cytoskeleton, cell junction, adhesion, extracellular matrix,
signaling and cell cycle in response to fluid shearing forces.
Currently we are exploring in depth on several up and down regulated
genes to better understand the regulation of signaling pathways that
might be involved in bone remodeling or modeling processes.

RESEARCH INTERESTS OF Mia Mia Thi: Mechanotransduction in the bone
cell network and endothelium; bone and vessel wall remodeling; and
structure and composition of bone pericellular matrix and endothelial
glycocalyx.

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ORGANIZATION OF THE SEMINAR SERIES

The Interinstitutional Steering Committee (ISC) will make decisions
concerning the seminar series, including the selection of speakers.
Interesting, high quality seminar speakers are sought. Seminar
attendees are asked to help in the identification of investigators
with new results relative to bone research, questions of current
interest and distinguished bone researchers visiting New York City
who might be persuaded to present a seminar. Presentations by
advanced graduate students and post-docs are encouraged.
The members of the Interinstitutional Steering Committee (ISC) are
Adele Boskey (Head of the Mineralized Tissue Section at the Hospital
for Special Surgery and Professor of Biochemistry at the Weill
Medical College of Cornell University), Timothy Bromage (Director,
Hard Tissue Research Unit, New York University College of Dentistry),
Stephen C. Cowin (Professor of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering
at the City College of the City University of New York (CUNY)),
Susannah P. Fritton (Director of the Tissue Mechanics Laboratory, New
York Center for Biomedical Engineering and Associate Professor of
Biomedical Engineering at the City College of CUNY), X. Edward Guo
(Director of the Bone Bioengineering Laboratory and Associate
Professor of Bioengineering at Columbia University), Clinton T. Rubin
(Professor and Chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering, and
Director of the Center for Advanced Technology in Medical
Biotechnology at SUNY Stony Brook) and Mitchell B. Schaffler
(Director of Orthopaedic Research and Professor of Orthopedics, Cell
Biology and Anatomy at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine). Each of
these people represents a community consisting of senior bone
research people, graduate students and, in most cases, undergraduate
students.

PLEASE DIRECT YOUR QUESTIONS AND FEEDBACK TO

Stephen C. Cowin
New York Center for Biomedical Engineering
Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering
School of Engineering
The City College
138th Street and Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031-9198, U. S. A.

Phone (212) 799-7970 (Office at Home)
Fax (212) 799-7970 (Office at Home)
Phone (212) 650-5208 (Work)
Email