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Elaine Serina
10-18-1993, 09:29 AM
Thanks to everyone who provided the very helpful suggestions regarding
heel pad modeling. I've followed up on as many of them as I could
and found them all useful. As promised, here's a summary of the
recommendations and comments I received...

Elaine Serina

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Date: Sat, 25 Sep 93 10:23:59 MDT
From: stergiou@phed.ucalgary.ca (Pro Stergiou)

Two people that I would suggest that you look at
include: 1) Jorgensen, U. and 2) Voloshin, A.S. These two researchers
have studied heel pad anatomy and shock absorption in running. Some
specfic papers which may give you a start include:

1)Cavanagh, P.R. et al(1984) Biological aspects of modeling shoe/foot
interaction during running. in:Sports Shoes and Playing Surfaces pp.24-46

2)Folman, Y. et al(1986) Cyclic impacts on heel strike: a possible
biomechanical factor in the etiology of degenerative diseasese

disease of the human system. Archives of Orthopaedic and Traumatic
Surgery:104,pp.363-365

3)Jorgensen, U. et al(1989) Shock absorbency factors in shoe/heel interaction
with special focus on the role of the heel pad

Foot & Ankle:9(11),pp.58-63.

4)Li, P. et al(1992) Mathematical modeling of the effect of sole elasticity
distribution on pronation. Journal of Biomechanics:25(5),pp.501-510

5)Misevich, K.W. et al(1984) Material aspects of modeling the shoe/foot
interaction. in:Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces pp. 47-75.

6)Salathe, E.P. et al(1990) The foot as a shock absorber. Journal of
Biomechanics:23(7),pp.357-369.

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Date: Mon, 27 Sep 93 09:45:05 MEZ
From: "E.M. HENNIG"

Gordon Valiant, currently working at Nike, worked in his dissertation at the
Pennsylvania State University on the topic of heel modeling. You may want
to contact him directly.

Dr. Gordon Valiant
Nike Sport Research Lab.
One Bowerman Drive
Beaverton / Oregon 97005
503 - 671 3184 (Tel.)
503-671-6300 (FAX)

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Date: Fri, 24 Sep 1993 15:48:29 -0700 (PDT)
From: Nicholas Stergiou

two articles that came directly in my mind.
One is from the book Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces, editor E.C. Frederick
and editor is Human Kinetics.
The other is from the Biomechanics of Distance Running, editor P.R. Cavanagh
and the same editor.

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Date: Fri, 01 Oct 93 10:04:17 MET
From: Jan Kooloos

I'll give the address of the institute in the Netherlands that is cuurently
dealing with the structure and function of the heel pad. In cooperation with
this institue we have done a limited study of the anatomy of the heel pad.
This study resulted sofar in a series of histological sections of the
hind foot in order to make anatomical 3D reconstructions of the heel pad
structure. The actual reconstruction still has to be carried out.
The address is:

Dr ir A de Lange
Centre TNO leather and shoes
Biomechanics Lab
Mr. van Coothstraat 55
POBox 135
5140 AC Waalwijk
The Netherlands
FAX 09-31-416041735 (to my knowledge no Email)

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From: steiner@convex.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de (Rene Steiner )
Date: Fri, 1 Oct 1993 12:33:55 +0100 (MET)

In the PhD thesis of Dwight A. Meglan of Ohio State a sophisticated foot
model is developed. In case you have difficulties getting the thesis
I summarize the references his work is based on.

Hawes, D. and Light, L. H. et al (1979)
Modelling the Distortion Produced by Heel Strike Transients in Soft
Tissue, Proc Physiol Soc 10P-11P
(sounds incomplete, but I cannot provide further info :-( )

Pavis, B. and Junque, A. et al (1983)
Validity of Hertzian contact theory in shocks on playing surfaces
in: Biomechanical Aspects of Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces,
Calgary, Canada, University Printing, Calgary, 63-72

MacLellan, G. E. (1984)
Skeletal heel strike transients, measurement, implication, and
modification by footwear.
in: Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces - biomechanical Properties.
Champaign, Ill, Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc, 76-86

Robbins, S.E. and Hanna, A. (1986)
The Soft Tissue System at the Heel Region of the Foot: Its
Mechanical Behavior and Function (Abstract).
North American Congress on Biomechanics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Ker, R.F. and Bennett, M. B. et al (1989)
Foot strike and the properties of the human heel pad.
J Eng Med 203:191-196

Smeathers, J. E. (1989)
Transient vibrations caused by heel strike
J Eng Med 203:181-186

J"ogensen, U. (1990)
Implication of Heel Strike
Acto Orthop Scand Suppl 235: 90

Valiant, G.A., ed. (1990)
Transmission ant Attenuation of Heelstrike Accelerations.
Champaign, Ill, Human Kinetics Books


Maybe you want to contact Dwight by email; his address is:

dmeglan@merle.acns.nwu.edu
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