View Full Version : Stepping down

Larry Abraham
10-20-1993, 02:50 AM
Thanks to the individuals who responded to my request for sources on
dynamics of "down-stepping". As promised, a summary follows:

The original request:

>A colleague has requested information about published work on the biomechanics
>of stepping down from a moderate height (15-50cm?), with particular interest
>in involved forces and possible injuries. I am not familiar with such a
>literature and would appreciate any suggestions. As is customary, I'll collect
>and post a summary of the replies I receive. Thanks.

>Larry Abraham, EdD
>Kinesiology & Health Education
>The University of Texas at Austin
>Austin, TX 78723 USA
>(512)471-1273 FAX (512)471-8914

The replies:

From: Duane Knudson

Just a quick note on some references I have. Its amazing that such a
exercise craze has so few studies jumping on the bandwagon. Have your
friend check out:
Loy & Voloshin (1991) biomechanics of stain walking and jumping J of Sports
Sciences 9:137-149
Newton & Humphries (1991) peak ground reaction forces during step aerobics,
walking and jogging Biomechanics in Sports IX pp. 67-71 Reebok has some GRF
data in their Step Reebok book

Date: Tue, 12 Oct 93 15:55:20 -0500
From: Philip Schot

We have some preliminary data available on the vertical GRFs from stair
ascent and descent that may be of interest. If interested in this info,
please contact me directly.

Philip Schot, PhD
Biomechanics Lab
Dept of Human Kinetics
email: pschot@csd4.csd.uwm.edu

From: "Brian Davis"
Date: Tue, 12 Oct 93 16:48:47 EDT

I did a search with Kit Vaughan's bibliography (GaitBib) and found the
following that may help your colleague;

Freedman W; Wannstedt G; Herman R
EMG patterns and forces developed during step-down American Journal of
Physical Medicine, 55(6):275-290

Nisell R; Mizrahi J; Ekholm J
Knee and ankle loads during step down activities Biomechanics X-B (ed. B.
Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, 1137-1142.

Andriacchi TP; Anderson GB; Fermier RW; Stern D; Galante JO 1980 Jul
A study of lower-limb mechanics during stair-climbing Journal of Bone and
Joint Surgery (Am), 62(5):749-757

Andriacchi TP; Galante JO; Fermier RW
1982 Dec
The influence of total knee-replacement design on walking and
stair-climbing Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Am), 64(9):1328-1335

Freedman W; Craik R
Effects of altered sensory input on stair descent (progress report)
Bulletin of Prosthetics Research, BPR 10-35, 18(1):239-241

Joseph J; Watson R
1967 Nov
Telemetering electromyography of muscles used in walking up and down stairs
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Br), 49(4):774-780

Kelman GJ; Biden EN; Wyatt MP; Ritter MA; Colwell CW Jr 1989
Gait laboratory analysis of a posterior cruciate-spacing total knee
arthroplasty in stair ascent and descent Clinical Orthopaedics, 248:21-25,
Discussion 25-26

Kikuchi T
Force plate analysis of ascending and descending stairs Nippon Seikeigeka
Gakkai Zasshi, 62(5):485-494

Koganezawa K; Fujimoto H; Kato I
Multifunctional above-knee prosthesis for stairs' walking Prosthetics and
Orthotic International, 11(3):139-145

Livingston LA; Stevenson JM; Olney SJ
Stairclinbing kinematics on stairs of differing dimensions Archives of
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 72(6):398-402

Loy DJ; Voloshin AS
Biomechanics of stair walking and jumping Journal of Sports Sciences,

Lyons K; Perry J; Gronley JK; Barnes L; Antonelli D 1983 Oct
Timing and relative intensity of hip extensor and abductor muscle action
during level and stair ambulation. An EMG study. Physical Therapy,

McFadyen B; Winter D
1986 Aug
Integrated biomechanical and EMG analysis of stair walking (abstract) North
American Congress on Biomechanics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

McFadyen BJ; Winter DA
An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent
Journal of Biomechanics, 21(9):733-744

Medeiros JM; Rager MA; Ressler LA
1980 Oct
Electrical activity in selected muscles during level walking, ascending and
descending stairs
Human Locomotion I, Proceedings of Canadian Society for Biomechanics, 8-9

Rudel D; Bajd T; Kralj A; Beuko H
1986 Sep
Crutch, staircase railing and foot-floor reaction forces during paraplegics
stair climbing (abstract)
Fifth Meeting of the European Society of Biomechanics, Berlin, West Germany

Shinno N
Analysis of knee function in ascending and descending stairs Biomechanics
II, (eds. J Vredenbregt, J Wartenweiler), Karger, Basel, 202-207

Townsend MA; Lainhart SP; Shiavi R; Caylor J 1978 Nov
Variability and biomechanics of synergy patterns of some lower-limb muscles
during ascending and descending stairs and level walking Medical and
Biological Engineering and Computing, 16(6):681-688

Watson J; Watson R
Telemetering electromyography of muscles used in walking up and down stairs
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Br), 49B:774-780

Regards, Brian Davis

Date: Wed, 13 Oct 1993 15:33:51 +0200 (EET)
From: "Prof. Joe Mizrahi"

2 references:

1. Nisell R and Mizrahi J (1988) "Knee and ankle joint forces developed
during various steps and jumps down" Clinical Biomechanics, 3:92-100.

2. Nisell R, Mizrahi J and Ekholm J (1987) "Knee and ankle loads during
step-down activities" In: Biomechanics XB, ed B. Jonsson, Human Kinetic
Publishers, Champaign, Ill, pp 1137-1142.

Prof. Joseph Mizrahi , D.Sc.
Dept. of Biomedical Eng. Technion IIT
Phone: 972-4-294128 Fax: 972-4-234131
e-mail: jm@biomed.technion.ac.il

Date: Tue, 12 Oct 93 19:35:04 EDT

We have an article in the Journal of Biomechanics on stair ascent and
descent. It includes moments of force, emg and joint kinematics. It may be
of some use to your colleague. The reference is McFadyen and Winter, 1988,
An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair gait. JOB, 21, pg
733-744. I know there is a literature on jump downs. McKinnely from Mcgill
University might be an author to search. These papers may cover step downs
too. Good luck, Brad McFadyen, Departement de kinanthropologie, Universite
du Quebec a Montreal

Larry Abraham, EdD
Kinesiology & Health Education
The University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78723 USA
(512)471-1273 FAX (512)471-8914