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Van Den Bogert, Ton
11-13-2005, 04:39 AM
This is a posting from Joe Wright .

(submitted by the Biomch-L moderator because of technical problems)

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Ton van den Bogert, Biomch-L co-moderator


-----Original Message-----

Many thanks to those who replied.

References given were:

* David Bishop, Warm Up I, Potential Mechanisms and the Effects of Passive Warm Up on Exercise Performance, Sports Med 2003; 33 (6): 439-454
* David Bishop, Warm Up 2, Performance Changes Following Active Warm Up and How to Structure the Warm Up, Sports Med 2003; 33 (6): 439-454
* Close R, Hoh JFY (1968) Influence of Temperature on Isometric Contractions of Rat Skeletal Muscles. Nature, volume 217, page 1179-1180
* Lännergren J., 1978, The force-velocity relation of isolated twitch and slow muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis. J. Physiol.283, 501-521.
* SE´BASTIEN RACINAIS, STEPHEN BLONC, SOPHIE JONVILLE, And OLIVIER HUE, Time Of Day Influences The Environmental Effects On Muscle Force And Contractility, MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS & EXERCISE 2005
* Book: Muscles, Reflexes and Locomotion by Thomas A. McMahon
* B. Bigland-Ritchie, C. K. Thomas, C. L. Rice, J. V. Howarth and J. J. Woods, Muscle temperature, contractile speed, and motor neuron firing rates during human voluntary contractions, Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol 73, Issue 6 2457-246
* Webb, P. (1986) Afterdrop of Body Temperature during Rewarming: an Alternative Explanation, Journal of Applied Physiology, 60 (2), 385-390
* J. A. Rall and R. C. Woledge, Influence of temperature on mechanics and energetics of muscle contraction, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 259:197-203, 1990.
* C. J. De Ruiter and A. De Haan, Similar effects of cooling and fatigue on eccentric and concentric force-velocity relationships in human muscle, J Appl Physiol 90: 2109-2116, 2001


And here are some rough notes I've made so far on some of the papers I've read:


David Bishop, Warm Up I, Potential Mechanisms and the Effects of Passive Warm Up on Exercise Performance, Sports Med 2003; 33 (6): 439-454
David Bishop, Warm Up 2, Performance Changes Following Active Warm Up and How to Structure the Warm Up, Sports Med 2003; 33 (6): 439-454

Temperature related
Decreased resistance of muscles and joints
Greater release of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin
Speeding of metabolic reactions
Increased nerve conduction rate
Increased thermoregulatory strain
Non-temperature related
Increased blood flow to muscles
Elevation of baseline oxygen consumption
Postactivation potentiation
Psychological effects and increased preparedness

At a probe depth of 40mm, Tm rises from 36oc at rest to >39oc after 10min moderate intensity. Rectal rises from 37 to >38
Passive resistance seems to reduce significantly with Tm but dynamic changes are small.
Increase in Tm increases oxyhaemoglobin dissociation, vasodilation and muscle blood flow. However, this may not be rate limiting for VO2. No comment on metabolite removal
Rate limiting oxidative reactions appear to respond little to rising Tm
Increasing Tm appears to increase reaction kinetics in the glycolic and phosphagen systems.
Temperature increase speeds up nervous impulse transmission. However, data on the benefit of this is lacking.
Thermoregulatory strain in hot environments for endurance
Warm up can raise VO2 baseline so that inertia in the oxidative system is reduced when it comes to performance and anaerobic processes are stressed less
Postactivation potentiation in the warm up may produce greater MVC in performance
Breaking actin-myosin bonds by going through ROMs
Psychological effects
Isometric force does not seem to increase significantly with increasing temperature within normal ranges. Significant cooler does reduce isometric force though.
Increasing Tm improves force/velocity (|v|>0) characteristics. General motor patterns (e.g. vertical jump) have shown benefit as well as individual muscles
Passive warm ups can improve intermediate performance but usually harmful to endurance
Active warm ups benefit short term through decreased stiffness, force/velocity, neuron transmission, glycolic and phosphagen. Should not be too intense otherwise fatigue (in the phosphagen system) will be significant. Best at 60% VO2max
Active warm ups benefit intermediate same as short term but also because of improved VO2 baseline.
Active warm ups can benefit long term through VO2 baseline but can make things worse through glycogen depletion or thermoregulatory strain
Tm plateaus after 10 - 20 mins at 60% VO2max
VO2 baseline reached 5 - 10mins at 60 - 80% VO2max
Recover >5 mins to replenish CrP but