View Full Version : Summary of the Responses: Resting Lengths of Spinal ligaments

02-22-2007, 07:57 AM
Dear All,

Thank you very much for those who responded to my post regarding resting
length data of spinal ligaments.

Here is a list of articles recommended by the responders:

Shirazi-Adl. and Parnianpour M. 1993. Non-linear response analysis of
human lingamentous lumbar spine in compression : a three dimensional non
linear finite element study. Spine 9, 2, 120-134.

Shirazi-Adl, Sadouk S, El-Rich M, Pop DG, Parnianpour M. 2002. Muscle
forces evaluation and the role of posture in human lumbar spine under
compression. European spine Journal. 11, 519-526.

Shirazi-Adl A. 2006. Analysis of a large compression loads on lumbar
spine in flexion and in torsion using a novel wrapping element. Journal
of Biomechanics.39, 267-275.

Chazal, J., Tanguy, A., Bourges, M., Gaurel, G., Escande, G., Guillot,
M., and Vanneuville, G., 1985. Biomechanical properties of spinal
ligaments and a histological study of the supraspinal ligament in
traction. J.Biomech. 18, 167-176.

Neumann, P., Keller, T.S., Ekstrom, L., Perry, L., Hansson, T.H., and
Spengler, D.M., 1992. Mechanical properties of the human lumbar anterior
longitudinal ligament. J.Biomech. 25, 1185-1194.

Pintar, F.A., Yoganandan, N., Myers, T., Elhagediab, A., and Sances, A.,
Jr., 1992. Biomechanical properties of human lumbar spine ligaments.
J.Biomech. 25, 1351-1356.

Tkaczuk, H. 1968. Tensile properties of human lumbar longitudinal
ligaments. Acta Orthop.Scand. Suppl.

Dr. David Dainty also recommended me to contact Dr. Stuart McGill at the
University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Ontario as he has worked extensively
with spinal mechanics as well as chiropractic.

Best regards,

Terry K.K. Koo

Dear All,

I am developing a biomechanical model of L4-L5 motion segment to
simulate spinal manipulation. To quantify ligament forces based on
elongation of the ligaments, the resting lengths need to be defined. For
instance, ligamentum flavum was reported to have a pre-stain of 10-15%
at the neutral spine position (Nachemson and Evans, 1968). However, the
similar information of other spinal ligaments appears to be missing in
the literature. Does anyone in the list know any sources describing the
resting lengths of the following ligaments: Anterior longitudinal
ligament; Posterior longitudinal ligament; Capsular ligaments;
Intertransverse ligaments; Interspinous ligament; and Supraspinous

Thanks in advance for your help on this matter.


Terry K.K. Koo, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Basic Sciences/Research Departments
New York Chiropractic College
Seneca Falls, NY 13148
E-mail: tkoo@nycc.edu

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