View Full Version : Pennation angle: 3D curvilinear definition?

09-24-2007, 07:03 PM
Dear all,

Definition for pennation angle is usually given for planar models and
between linear actuators (typically a tendon and a muscle fiber). This
is a cheeky approximation (i.e., the anatomical reality is much more


- what about a definition when the model is dealing with 3D data?
Would it be still acceptable to use a linear approach to the problem?

- What would be the method to use when both actuators (muscle fiber
and tendon) are not linear anymore, but curvilinear? What is the
pennation angle in this case?

- Is there any consensus on this topic?

Thank you very much for any help on that topic.

Greetings from Belgium,


Serge VAN SINT JAN, Ph.D., Prof.

Department of Anatomy (CP 619)
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Lennik Street 808
1070 Brussels - Belgium
Phone: +32-2-555-6325 (-6376)
Mobile Phone: +32-495-125593
Fax: +32-2-555-6378
Email: sintjans@ulb.ac.be
LAB website: http://homepages.ulb.ac.be/~anatemb