View Full Version : Summary on bone structure of interspecies

Xiaodu Wang
02-01-1994, 02:30 AM
Dear Biomech-L netters:

I posted a query for the information regarding the cortical bone structure
of interspecies a week ago. Since then, I have received replies including
comments, references, and suggestions, which are very helpful to our
research. I would like to greatly appreciate all respondents for their
kindness. As promised, I have summarized all replies. It is no doubt that
the information posted here is helpful to those who might be interested in
this topic.


Xiaodu Wang Ph.D.

My original message is as follows.
Dear netters:

I am looking for the information concerning cortical bone microstructure of
animals such as canine, rabbit, baboon, and bovine. We are doing the research
on the fracture toughness of cortical bone from different species, and trying to
correlate bone fracture toughness to its structure. I did literature search,
but found little on this issue. I would appreciate it very much if anyone could
share the information with me. I will post the summary of all responds. Thank
you in advance.

Xiaodu Wang Ph.D.
Orthopaedic Research
UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX
Tel: (210)-567-6494
Fax: (210)-567-6295

Following are the replies I received.

A good starting point is Cowin's Book, Bone Mechanics
Publisher is CRC Press, around 1990.

Gook Luck,

Mike Sanders
e-mail: msanders@ME.UVic.CA
Grad. Student
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Victoria, Canada.

Dr Wang:

You won't find the answer to your inquiry through a literature search.
The information that you are looking for is in the comparative histology
area, and has not been systematically reviewed in any paper that I am aware
of. There are lovely pieces of scholarship by Foote (1916); Amprino and
Godina (1947) and Enlow on microstrcutre in different species, but these are
based on isolated samples and may not be representative of the species
examined. Comact bone microstructure is also typically reported anectodally
is other papers. You might have a look at Martin and Burr's book "Structure,
Function and Adaptation of Compact Bone" for a discussion of different
compact bone tissue types.

I have used bones from all of these species, so I will offer the follow

Canines - there lots of literature on the dog skeleton. The dogs has been
used extensively for bone biology/histomorphometry studies and some
biomechanics studies (Moyle's fracture toughness studies). Its cortical
bone is prinicpally secondary osteonal, having replaced lamellar primary
osteonal bone.

Rabbits - Not a whole lot of data here. Rabbits have some secondary
osteonal regions in their long bone cortices, but it's not a great deal.
Most of the rabbit cortex is primary osteonal bone.

Baboons - Looks a lot like dog bone. Its cortical bone is prinicpally
secondary osteonal, having replaced lamellar primary osteonal bone. There is
a fair amount of recent literature on the bone biology cynomogolus baboons,
published by the Chris Jerome and David Weaver at Wake Forest Univeristy

Bovine - Cow bone is primarily plexiform, with focal regions of secondary
osteonal remodeling. The properties of bovine bone and correlations to its
microstructure have been extensively discussed in the literature (see Martin
and Burr for review)

As a general rule, age is a very important determinant of the kind of
compact bone tissue. Everythin that I have described is true only for
adult, skeletally mature animals. In skeletally immature animals, the
picture is completely different.

I hope these comments may be of some use to you. Please let me know if
you need any additional information. Good luck with your research.

Mitch Schaffler
Head, Section of Anatomy
Henry Ford Health Sciences Ctr.
Detroit, MI, 48202


I suggest you contact Dave Burr; he's chairman of the department of
anatomy at Indiana University, Indianapolis 46202. Tel: (317) 274-7496,

Joel Vilensky

Dear Dr. Wang:

The most comprehensive study of comparative bone histology
is that of Donald H. Enlow and Sidney O. Brown, published in
three issues of The Texas Journal of Science:

1) Vol. 8(4):405-443 (1956)
2) Vol. 9(2):186-214 (1957)
3) Vol. 10(2):187-230 (1958)

This series of papers described the histology of numerous
taxa (most Orders are represented). Volume 3 is a comparative
study of Mammalia.

There is, in addition, a comparative study of some carnivores by:

Diaz, C.M.C. and Rajtova, V in Folia Morphologica,
Vol. 23(3):221-229 (1975).

It may interest you to know that we curate the Donald H. Enlow
Histology Collection here in New York, and so we have the sections
used in the TJS series.

From: Tim Bromage

Here are some possible references, as promised. I have many other articles
relating to mechanical tests of bone (and damage in bone) from different
animals, but I have selected ones that seems to include at least some
discussion of the microstructure. If you are interested in the references
for articles I have not included, please let me know. Your literature search
may have already come up with these.


Currey, JD. The effects of strain rate, reconstruction, and mineral
content on some mechanical properties of bovine bone. J. Biomechanics
2:1-11, 1975

Wright TM, Hayes WC. Tensile testing of bone over a wide range of strain
rates: effects of strain rate, microstructure and density. Medical and
Biological Engineering Vol ? November, 1976, pp. 671-679

Saha S, Hayes WC. Relations between tensile impact properties and
microstructure of compact bone. Calcified Tissue Research 24:65-52, 1977

Behiri JC, Bonfield W. Orientation dependence of the fracture mechanics
of cortical bone. J. Biomechanics 22:863-872, 1989

Lipson SF, Katz JL. The relationship between elastic properties and
microstructure of bovine cortical bone. J. Biomechanics 4:231-240, 1984

Simkin A, Robin G. Fracture formation in differing collagen fiber pattern
of compact bone. J. Biomechanics 7:183-188, 1974

Martin RB, Ishida J. The relative effects of collagen fiber orientation,
porosity, density, and mineralization on bone strength. J. Biomechanics
5:419-426, 1989

Martin RB, Boardman DL. The effects of collagen fiber orientation, porosity,
density, and mineralization on bovine cortical bone bending properties.
J. Biomechanics 26:1047-1054, 1993


Moyle DD, Welborn JW III, Cooke FW. Work to fracture of canine femoral
bone. J. Biomechanics 11:435-440, 1978

Katz JL, Meunier A. Scanning acoustic microscope studies of the elastic
properties of osteons, and osteon lamellae. J Biomechanical Engineering
115:543-548, 1993


Pope MH, Outwater JO. The fracture characteristics of bone substance.
J. Biomechanics 5:457-465, 1972. (**Includes data and discussion of
tests on bovine, canine, anthropoid (rhesus monkey and human) bone, which
are compared with other work where possible.**)


Robertson DM, Smith DC. Compressive strength of mandibular bone as a
function of microstructure and strain rate. J. Biomechanics 11:455-471,


Currey JD. Strain rate dependence of the mechanical properties of reindeer
antler and the cumulative damage model of bone fracture. J. Biomechanics


McCarthy RN, Jeffcott LB, McCartney RN. Ultrasound speed in equine cortical
bone: effects of orientation, density, porosity and temperature.
J. Biomechanics 23(11):1139-1143, 1990

Walmsley R, Smith JW. Variation in bone structure and the value of
Young's modulus. Jounral of Anatomy 91:603 - ?, 1957


Saha S. The Dynamic Strength of Bone and Its Relevance. in
Osteoarthromechanics. Ghista DN, ed. McGraw-Hill. Year?? (This chapter
discusses the relevance of microstructure, and also contains a number
of references pertaining to mechanical tests on bone from different

Katz JL. The structure and biomechanics of bone. in The Mechanical
Properties of Biological Materials (Symposia of the Society for
Experimental Biology) #34, Cambridge University Press, 1980

Melvin JW. Fracture Mechanics of Bone. Journal of Biomechanical
Engineering 115:549-554, 1993 (This is a review article dealing mainly
with human and bovine bone.

Bonfield W. Advances in the fracture mechanics of cortical bone.
J. Biomechanics 20:1071-1081, 1987 (Also a review article, with lots
of summary data.)

Keaveny TM, Hayes WC. Mechanical properties of cortical and trabecular
bone. in Bone Vol 7: Bone Growth - B. Brian K Hall, ed. CRC Press, 1993
(has a section on the effects of microstructure on cortical bone properties.)

Martin RB, Burr DB. Structure, Function, and Adaptation of Compact Bone.
Raven Press, New York, 1984 (?)

Hogan HA. Micromechanics modeling of haversian cortical bone properties.
J. Biomechanics. 25:549-556, 1992

Burr DB, Schaffler MB, Frederickson RG. Composition of the cement line
and its possible mechanical role as a local interface in human compact
bone. 21:939-945, 1988


Amy Courtney, Ph.D.
Dept. of Biomedical Engineering
The Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Dear Xiaodu:

I am working on the methods for the in-vivo measurement of human bone
density. These are some articles and books relating mechanical properties
of human and animals cortical bone with mineral density, hydratation state
and structure.

Evans FG. Mechanical properties of bone. Springfield - Illinois - USA:
Charles C. Thomas - Publisher, 1973:

Horsman A., Currey J.D.: Estimation of mechanical properties of the distal
radius from bone mineral content and cortical width. Clin.Orthop., 1983,

Snyder S.M., Schneider E.: Estimation of mechanical properties of cortical
bone by computed tomography. J.Orthp.Res., 1991, 9:422-431.

Broz J.J., simske S.J., Greenberg A.R., Luttges M.W.: Effects of
rehydratation state on the flexural properties of whole mouse long bones.
J.Biomech.Eng., 1993, 115:447.

Finlay J.B., Hardie W.R.: Anisotropic contraction of cortical bone caused
by dehydratation of samples of the bovine femur in vitro . J.Eng.Med.,
1994, 208:27-32.

Sasaki N., Yoshikawa M.: Stress relaxation in native and EDTA-treated bone
as function of mineral content . J.Biomechanics, 1993, 26:77-83.

Koheles S.S., Vanderby Jr R., Ashman R.B., Manley P.A., Markel M.D., Heiner
J.P.: Ultrasonically determined elasticity and cortical density in canine
femora after total hip arthroplasty. J.Biomechanics, 1993, 27:137-144.

In the Proceedings of the Second World Congress of Biomechanics, July 10-15
1994, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, you can find many authors working on this
argument. See for examples:

Schaffer M.B., Fyhrie, D.P., Radin E.L, Bone microdamage and microstructure
(research on human cortical bone)

Tanabe, Y., Tanner K.E., Bonfield W., Dynamic mechanical analysis of bovine
cortical bone

Have a good research.

Fabio Baruffaldi
Laboratorio di Tecnologia dei Materiali tel. 0039-51-6366864
Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli
via di barbiano 1/10, 40136 - Bologna, Italy fax. 0039-51-6366863

E-mail: LK1BOQ72@icineca.cineca.it

---------------------------- END OF THE FILE ------------------------------

Xiaodu Wang Ph.D.
Orthopaedic Research
UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX
Tel: (210)-567-6494
Fax: (210)-567-6295