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Heinz-bodo Schmiedmayer
05-12-1994, 07:45 PM
Hello NETers!

Here is the promised summary on my request concerning childrens'
playground accidents related to the surfaces of the playgrounds.

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REFERENCES:
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BRUYA, L. D. & LANGENDORFER, S. J. (1988). WHERE OUR CHILDREN PLAY: ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT. AMERICAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH, PHYSICAL
EDUCATION, RECREATION AND DANCE: RESTON, VA;

Janda, David H. Journal of the American Medical Association 259:1848-1850,
1988

Kooi, J. & Versmissen, A.C.M. Impact absorbing surfaces : injury prevention
in playground. IRCOBI Conf. on the Biomechanics of impacts,
Bergisch-Gladbach, Allemagne, 287-297 (1988)

THOMPSON, D. & BOWERS, L. (1989). WHERE OUR CHILDREN PLAY: COMMUNITY PARK
PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT. AMERICAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION,
RECREATION AND DANCE: RESTON, VA.;

Thompson, D. What surfaces should be put under school playground equipment.
Journal_of Health_Physical Education,_Recreation_and_Dance Vol 62,(9),
74-75 (1991)

Thompson, D. Playground equipment and surfaces: Who is trying to make them
safer ICPHER_JOURNAL -- in press (may be out by now)

WORTHAM, S. C. & FROST, J. L. (1990). PLAYGROUNDS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN: NATIONAL
SURVEY AND PERSPECTIVES. AMERICAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH, PHYSICAL
EDUCATION, RECREATION AND DANCE: RESTON, VA.

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OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION:
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There are standards on playground surfaces...this has been studied in
great depth at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan USA

One resource may be the ASTM or ANSI publications in the US. These publications
list standards and criteria for many pieces of equipment including sports
and some playground equipment as well as some surfaces. It might be a place
to start.

In the USA, standards for playground surface characteristics are
administered by the ASTM committee F-8 on Sports and Equipment
and Facilities, and specifically by sub-committee F-8.52. The
head of the Task Group on Playground Surfacing is Robert C. Schiffer
(Tel: 717-249-1000, Fax: 717-249-0015).

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) has a specific test for
playgrounds. It involves dropping an instrumented impactor mass and recording
the peak g as well as the HIC value obtained from the classic calculation.
The standard number is ASTM F 355-86. Test Method for Shock Absorbing
Properties of Playing Surfaces and Materials. The actual test requirement
standard is ASTM F 1292-93 - Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of
Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment.

Other resources you can investigate are previous publications of the IRCOBI
conference (International Research Council on the Biokinetics of Impact).
There was a paper published by a group working out of TNO in the Netherlands
who did actual impact testing of playground surfaces. I believe the
publication year was 1990.

The Freiburg Institute in Germany are currently working with the Federation
International de Gymnastique (FIG) regarding mats and tumbling surfaces.
They may have similar activity going on in playground surfaces.

The Consumer Product Safety Institute in Amsterdam has a large
staff to do research and make guidelines to prevent home safety accident
They have a good library and a continuous sample research on the epi-
demiology of accidents. They publish in Dutch and English.
They can be reached : Rijswijksestr 2 1059 GK Amsterdam
or Postbox 74169 1070 AD Amsterdam
phone:+31-20-5114511 fax: 020-6692831

The American Association of Leisure & Recreation (AALR) of the American
Alliace of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) did
a rather extensive study of the issue of playground safety. You might
cantact them at the Alliance Headquarters.
American Association for Leisure and Recreation, Committee on Play
1900 Association Drive, Reston, Virginia, USA

In the US over the past decade there have been a number of studies related
to children's playgrounds and accidents. Stephen J. Langendorfer helped
edit a book on one of the first survey studies done back in 1986-1987.
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has a handbook and has sponsored
several studies which examined accidents and playgrounds.

Dr. Lawrence D. Bruya, Chairperson
Dept. of PESLS, Washington State University
Pullman, Washington 99164 USA (509) 335-4046

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Many thanks to the contributors:

JIM CONN
Sue Doody
Steve Kinzey
Stephen J. Langendorfer
Peter Loubert
David Luedtke
Johan F.M. Molenbroek
Pierre Mongenie
Martyn Shorten
Terry Smith

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