View Full Version : Summary-kin. & dyn. model of human hand

Oyvind Stavdahl
07-01-1994, 07:10 PM
Hallo list,

I posted last week requesting references to people and/or
litterature dealing with kinematic and dynamic models of
the human hand.

Here comes a summary of the responses - a total of 8 messages
including references to about _383_articles_ (possibly with a
few duplications) plus persons and companies with expertice
and software products in this area.

I am impressed by the response - thanks to all who contributed!

With best regards,
Oyvind Stavdahl
__________________________________________________ ______________________
/ \
| THE UNIVERSITY OF TRONDHEIM | Phone +47 73 59 43 91 (direct) |
| Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics | +47 73 59 43 76 (switchboard) |
| O. Bragstads plass 8 | Fax +47 73 59 43 99 |
| N-7034 TRONDHEIM | Email stavdahl@itk.unit.no |
| NORWAY | |
\_________________________________________________ _______________________/

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Dear Oyvind Stavdahl:

Our company has developed the Inertiator[TM] - the only comercially
available system for measuring the mass and inertial properties
of body segments. We will send you by mail ai information package
that includes some sample data.


Yael Yona
OsteoKinetics Corporation
82 Stuart Road
Newton, MA 02159
Ph: (617) 235-4426
FAX: (617) 235-8953
e-mail: osteoknt@tiac.net

----- End Included Message -----

----- Begin Included Message -----


I'm sending you my bibliography file. It has all of the articles I've
read related to upper extremity mechanics/physiology/misc. It has 351
references. All you need to do is read titles and keep the ones that interest
you. If you can't get copies of any, just send me a note of the ones and I'll
get them sent to you. Good luck.


PS I hope you use latex.

************************************************** ******************************

Dave Giurintano (504) 642-4731
Paul Brand Biomechanics Lab (504) 642-4738 F
GW Long Hansen's Disease Center giurin@resdjg.gwlhdc.lsu.edu
Carville, LA 70721

********************** all 351 upper extremity references **********************

An, KN, Chao, EY, Cooney, WP and Linscheid, RL,
``Normative Model of the Human Hand
for Biomechanical Analysis," {\it J. Biomechaincs} 12 p. 775-788
An, KN, Hui, FC, Morrey, BF, Linscheid, RL and Chao, EY,
``Muscles Across the Elbow
Joints: A Biomechanical Analysis," {\it J. Biomechaincs}
14(10) p. 659-669 1981.
An, KN, Ueba, Y, Chao, EY, Cooney, WP, and Linscheid, RL,
``Tendon Excursion and Moment Arm of
Index Finger Muscles," {\it J. Biomechaincs} 16(6) p. 419-425
An, KN, Cooney, WP, Chao, EY, Askew, LJ, and Daube, JR,
``Determination of Forces in Extensor Pollicis Longus
and Flexor Pollicis Longus," {\it J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat.
Environ. Exercise Physiol.} 54(3) p. 714-719 1983.
Armstrong, TJ and Chaffin, DB , ``An Investigation
of the Relationship Between Displacements of the Finger and
Wrist Joints and the Extrinsic Finger Flexor Tendons,"
{\it J. Biomechaincs} 11 p. 119-128 1978.
Baildon, RWA and Chapman, AE, ``A New Approach
to the Human Muscle Model," {\it J. Biomechaincs} 16(10)
p. 803-809 1983.
Beasley, RW, Brown, HG, Meyer, VE, and Rabischong, P
``Atlas of Surgical Anatomy of the Hand and Forearm,"
The Foundation for Hand Research, 1981
Becnel, CD, ``A Parameter Evaluation Technique and
Model of the Biomechanics of the Human Hand," Masters
Thesis. Louisiana State University 1977.
Berger, RA, Crowninshield, RD, and Flatt, AE, ``The Three
Dimensional Rotational Behaviors of the Carpal Bones,"
{\it Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research} 167 p. 303-310,
Berme, N, ``Forces Transmitted by the Finger and
Thumb Joint," {\it Acta Orthopaedica Belgica} 46(6)
p. 669-677, 1980.
Bober, T, Kornecki, S, and Lehr, R, ``Biomechanical
Analysis of Human Arm Stabilization During Force
Production," {\it J. Biomechaincs} 15(11) p. 825-830, 1982.
Boivin, G, Wadsworth, GE, Landsmeer, JMF, and Long, C,
``Electromyographic Kinesiology of the Hand: Muscles
Driving the Index Finger," {\it Archives of Physical Medicine and
Rehabilitation} p. 17-26, 1969.
Brand, PW, ``Biomechanics of Tendon Transfer,"
{\it Orthopedic Clinics of North America} 5(2) p. 205-230, 1974.
Brand, PW, Cranor, KC, and Ellis, JC, ``Tendon and Pulleys
at the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of a Finger,"
{\it J. Bone and Joint Surgery} 57-a(6) p. 779-784, 1975.
Brand, PW, Beach, RB, and Thompson, DE, ``Relative
Tension and Potential Excursion of Muscles in the Forearm
and Hand,"
{\it J. Hand Surgery} 6(3) p. 209-219, 1981.
Brand, PW, \underline{Clinical Mechanics of the Hand},
CV Mosby. St. Louis, 1985.
Brown, TI, Rack, PM, and Ross, HF, ``Forces Generated at the
Thumb Interphalangeal Joint During Imposed Sinusoidal Movements,"
{\it J. Physiol(London)} 332 p. 69-85, 1982
Brown, TI, Rack, PM, and Ross, HF, ``Electromyographic Responses
to Imposed Sinusoidal Movement of the Human Thumb"
{\it J. Physiol(London)} 332 p. 87-99, 1982
Brown, TI, Rack, PM, and Ross, HF, ``A Range of Different Stretch
Reflex Responses in the Human Thumb"
{\it J. Physiol(London)} 332 p. 101-112, 1982
Brown, TI, Rack, PM, and Ross, HF, ``Different Types of Tremor
in the Human Thumb"
{\it J. Physiol(London)} 332 p. 113-123, 1982
Buford, WL, ``Interactive Three Dimensional Computer Graphics
Simulation of the Kinematics of the Human Thumb," Doctoral
Disertation. Louisiana State University, 1984.
Buford, WL and Thompson, DE, ``A System for Three-Dimensional Interactive
Simulation of Hand Biomechaincs," {\it IEEE Transactions on Biomedical
Engineering} 34(6) p. 444-453, 1987.
Carnahan, B, Luther, HA, and Wilkes, JO,
\underline{Applied Numerical Methods},
John Wiley and Sons. New York, 1969.
Chao, EY, Opgrande, JD, and Axmear, FE, ``Three
Dimensional Force Analysis of Finger Joints in Selected
Isometric Hand Function," {\it J. Biomechaincs}. 19(6)
p. 387-396, 1976.
Chao, EY and An, KN, ``Determination of Internal Forces in
Human Hand," {\it J. of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE}.
Vol. 104 No. EM1 p. 225-272, 1978.
Close, JR, and Kidd, CC, ``The Function of the Muscles of the
Thumb, the Index and Long Fingers," {\it J. Bone and Joint Surgery}
51-A p. 1601-1620, 1969.
Cooney, WP, and Chao, EY, ``Biomechanical Analysis of Static
Forces in the Thumb During Hand Function," {\it J. Bone and Joint Surgery }
59-A(1) p. 27-36, 1977.
Cooney, WP, Lucca, MJ, Chao, EY, and Linscheid, RL
``The Kinesiology of the
Thumb Trapeziometacarpal Joint," {\it J. Bone and Joint
Surgery } 63-A(9) p. 1371-1381, 1981.
Crowninshield, RD and Brand, RA, ``A Physiologically
Based Criterion of Muscle Force Prediction in Locomotion,"
{\it J. Biomechaincs} 14(11) p. 793-801, 1981.
Day, BL and Marsden, CD, ``Accurate Repostioning of the
Human Thumb Against Unpredictable Dynamic Loads is Dependent
Upon Peripheral Feed-back,"
{\it J. Physiol(London) } 327 p. 393-407, 1982.
Delattre, JF, Ducasse, A, Flament, JB, and Kenesi, C,
``The Mechanical Role of the Digital Fibrous Sheath:
Application to Reconstructive Surgery of the Flexor Tendons,"
{\it Anatomia Clinica } 5 p. 187-197, 1983.
Doyle, JR and Blythe, WF, ``The Finger Flexor Tendon Sheath
and Pulleys Anataomy and Reconstrution" {\it AAOS Symmposium
on Tendon Surgery in the Hand},
St Louis, 1975.
Doyle, JR and Blythe, WF, ``Anatomy of the Flexor Tendon
Sheath and Pulleys of the Thumb," {\it J. Hand Surgery } 2(2) p. 149-151,
Ejeskar, A, and Ortengren, R, ``Isolated Finger Flexion Force-
A Methodological Study," {\it The Hand} 13(3) p. 223-230, 1981.
Ejeskar, A, ``Finger Flexion Force and Hand
Grip Strength after Tendon Repair," {\it J. Hand Surgery}
7(1) p. 61-65, 1982.
Fick, R, ``Statische Berachtung der Muskulature des Oberschenkels,"
{\it Z Rationelle Med} 9 p. 94-106, 1850.
Freehafer, AA, Peckham, PH and Keith, MW,
``Determination of Muscle-Tendon Unit Properties During
Tendon Transfer," {\it J. Hand Surgery} 4(4) p. 331-339, 1979.
Fung, YC, ``Biomechanics - It's Scope, History, and
Some Problems of Continuum Mechanism Physiology,"
{\it Applied Mechanics Reviews} 21(1) p. 1-20, 1968.
Fung, YC,
\underline{Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues},
Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981.
Griffiths, DA (1972) Functional Anatomy of the Hand, {\it Medical and Biological
Illustration}, {\bf 22}, p. 150-153.
Hazelton, FT, Smidt, GL, Flatt, AE, and Stephens, RI,
``The Influence of Wrist Position on the Forces
Produced by the Finger Flexors," {\it J. Biomechaincs} 8 p. 301-306,
Hirsch, D, Page, D, Miller, D, Dumbleton, JH, Miller, EH,
``A Biomechanical Analysis of the Metacarpophalangeal
Joint of the Thumb,"
{\it J. Biomechaincs} 7 p. 343-348, 1974.
Holden, CEA and Norhtmore-Ball, MD, ``The Strength
of the Profundus Tendon Insertion," {\it The Hand} 3(7) p. 238-240,
James, DF, Clark, IP, Colwill, JC, and Halsall, AP,
``Forces in the Metacarpophalangeal
Joint Due to Elevated Fluid Pressure-analysis Measurements
and Relevance to Ulnar Drift," {\it J. Biomechaincs} 15(2) p. 73-84,
Ketchum, LD, Brand, PW, Thompson, DE, and Pocock, GS,
``The Determination of Moments for Extension of the Wrist
Generated by Muscles of the Foreman,"
{\it J. Hand Surgery} 3(3) p. 205-210, 1978.
Kobke, J, ``A Biomechanical and Morphological Analysis
of Human Hand Joints,"
{\it Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell. Biol.} 80 p. 1-85, 1983.
Krewer, SE, ``Calibrated Grasping Tubes for Intrinsic-Plus
Testing of Arthritic Hands," {\it Arch Phys Med Rehabil}
59 p. 293-294, 1978.
Kroemer, KHE and Gienapp, EM, ``Hand-held Devices to
Measure Finger(thumb) Strength,"
{\it J. Applied Phsiology} 29(4) p. 526-527, 1970.
Landsmeer, JMF, ``Studies in the Anatomy of Articulation,"
{\it Acta. Morphol. Neerlando-Scandinavia} 3 p. 287-321, 1961.
Landsmeer, JMF, ``The Coordination of Finger-Joint
Motions," {\it J. Bone and Joint Surgery} 45-A(8) p. 1645-1662, 1963.
Landsmeer, JMF and Long, C, ``The Mechanism of Finger Control,
Based on Electromyograms and Location Analysis," {\it Acta Anat.} 60
p. 330-347, 1965.
Landsmeer, JMF, ``Structural Analysis of the Fourth Dorsal
Interosseus of the Human Hand," {\it Acta Anat} 62 p. 176-214, 1965.
Landsmeer, JMF, Observations on the Joints of the Human Hand,"
{\it Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases} 28 p. 11-14, 1969.
Lin, R, Lin, E, Engel, J and Bubis, JJ, ``Histo-mechanical Aspects of
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome," {\it The Hand} 15(3) p. 305-309, 1983.
Linscheid, RL and Chao, EY, ``Biomechanical Assessment of
Finger Function in Prosthetic Joint Design," {\it Orthopedic Clinics
of North America} 4(2) p. 317-330, 1973.
Lundstrom, R, ``Local Vibrations- Mechanical
Impedance of the Human Hand's Glabrous Skin,"
{\it J. Biomechaincs} 17(2) p. 137-144, 1984.
Malek, R, ``A Study of Kinetic Joint Chains,"
\underline{The Hand}(Tubina, R editor) Ch.19 p. 218-222
WB SAUNDERS(Phila) Vol 1, 1981
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Marsden, CD, Merton, PA, and Morton, HB, ``Stretch Reflex and
Servo Action in a Variety of Human Muscles," {\it J. Physiol}
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Micks, JE, Reswick, JB, Hager, DL, ``The Mechanism of
the Intrinsic-minus Finger: A Biomechanical Study," {\it J. Hand
Surgery} 3(4) p. 333-341, 1978.
Morrey, BF and An, KN, ``Articular and Ligamentous Contributions
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Joint of the Thumb," Doctoral Dissertation. Louisiana
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MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982.
Pernet, A, ``Biomechanics of the Hand,"
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% 5
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% 10
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% 15
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DE (1994) Analysis of CMC Joint Kinematics Using Computer Visualization, {\it
Med Engr Phys} (submitted).

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Oyvind Stavdahl

We, at the Bio-Mechanics Evaluation Lab, Michigan State University
have just started to work on a Kinematic Model of Human Hand from Shoulder
down (not including shoulder). Three dof at the wrist, Three dof at the MCP
joint and one at the PIP and DIP joint of each finger. We are trying to use
Motion Analysis system in the study of the motion of the hand. This model
was developed out of our own understanding of Hand motions.

One good reference :

- "Normative model of Human Hand for biomechanical analysis" - An, K.n.Chao,
et at. , J. Biomechanics 12, 775-788. (1979)

Nothing else much right now,
Have fun with the study of Human Hand Kinematics,

Kiran Sanka,
Research Assistant
BioMechanics Evaluation Lab
Michigan State University, EL MI.

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Dear Oyvind,

We are developing a model of the human upper limb based on musculoskeletal=
geometry, joint kinematics, and muscle force-generating properties.=
Our current model includes only the elbow and wrist, and has four=
degress of freedom. We have spent a great deal of time comparing=
moment arms computed with the model to moment arms measured in cadavers.=
We believe this is important because the moment arms have a major=
affect on the moments generated by muscles and on the resulting=
joint accelerations. I would be happy to send you a copy of our=
manuscipt describing the elbow model, which was recently accpeted=
for publication in J. Biomech.

There is a group at Stanford developing a model of the hand. This=
model is compatible with our elbow/wrist model because they are=
using the same bone geometry and the same musculoskeletal modeling=
software. Felix Zajac is the director of this project. Francisco=
Valero is the primary person creating and testing the model. You=
may want to contact them to get additional information.

The models I described above are still under development, so not=
much has been published yet. I would be very interested in the=
responses you get from your posting and would be grateful if you=
could forward them to me.


Scott Delp
Departments of Biomedical Engineering
and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Northwestern University

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kepple%bmlvax.dnet@dxi.nih.gov wire frame models available free on

also you can buy data from VIEWPOINT (801) 224 2222 Utah.

Richard Wood
Swansea Univ. UK

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Dear Mr. Stavdahl,
In response to your request distributed via Biomch_l
I send you the reference to the article with the results of biomechanical
modelling of human hand movements. The hand was modelled by a system of
16 rigid bodies connected by frictionless joints. This model has 22 degrees
of freedom corresponding to the movements in the hand joints. 29 hand muscles
were modelled by weightless expandable threads. The inverse problem of dynamics
has been solved for main movements of the hand, i.e. the muscle forces have been
calculated assuming that the sum of their efforts is minimal in each instant
of movement.
I hope this results may be helpful for you.
With best regards,
Elena Biryukova

================================================== =========================
Biryukova E.V., Yourovskaya V.Z. (1993) A model of the human wrist
dynamics. In: Advances in the Biomechanics of the Hand and Wrist
(F.Schuind, K.N.An, W.P.Cooney III and M.Garcia-Elias, eds.), Plenum
Press, New York, 107-122.

================================================== ======
Lab. of Mathematical Neurophysiology,
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology
of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Butlerov str., 5a, 117865, Moscow, Russia
Phone: 7 (095) 338 77 00
E-mail: lmno@ihnerv.msk.su
================================================== ======

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>From James.Ashton-Miller@um.cc.umich.edu Mon Jun 27 00:54:30 1994

It is good to know that someone up in Trondheim is doing some
biomechanics. I spent five years at Sophies Minde Ortopedisk
Hospital in Oslo when Helge Ronningen (also in Trondheim in
Ortopedi) was there. Anyway - one of the hkey things in any
model would be the rate at which strength can be developed
by the various muscles. We have recently submitted a paper
on this to J. Gerontol.: Med. Sci. for the ankle muscles. If
you need some numbers - let me know.

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>From BUCHHOLZB@aspen.uml.edu Tue Jun 28 16:22:57 1994


I have attached a detailed, though incomplete, list of
references on hand biomechanics. I am doing quite a bit in this
area, so let me know if you have any other questions.

Bryan Buchholz, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Work Environment
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1 University Ave.
Lowell, MA 01854 USA

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the finger flexors in rheumatoid deformities of the
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of the human finger under influence of the extensor
digitorum tendon and the deep flexor tendon. Journal of
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the finger tendons. Journal of Biomechanics 12, 575-578.
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finger tendons. Journal of Biomechanics 15(5), 391-393.
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considerations of lumbricalis behavior in the human finger.
Journal of Biomechanics 1, 107-115.
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movements: A computer graphics model. In Biomechanics:
Current Interdisciplinary Research, edited by SM Perren and
E Schneider. Martinus Nijhof, Dordrecht, The Netherlands,

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