View Full Version : SUMMARY: leg length asymmetry

09-11-1994, 07:11 PM
Dear BIOMCH-ers,

I promised to post a summary of my query last month re.
functional aspects of leg length inequality. The responses were
really very helpful for my work, and I thank all colleagues who
responded. I hope it will be possible for us to keep in touch.

My original post and the replies follow.


James Steele (Research Fellow),
Dept of Archaeology,
University of Southampton,
Southampton SO9 5NH,

E-Mail: tjms@southampton.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 3 Aug 1994 09:48:00 BST
Subject: Loading of the feet: QUERY

Dear BIOMCH-ers,

The post of symposium details for the footwear meeting prompts
me to ask for your help. Does anyone know of any studies of
symmetrical and asymmetrical loading of the left and right feet
in normal movements and in static postures? I am working on bone
length asymmetries in the human lower limb, but so far have only
found one empirical biomechanical study which addresses this
problem in depth:

A. Marsk, Studies on weight-distribution upon the lower
extremities in individuals working in a standing position. Acta
Orthop. Scandinavica Suppl. 31 (1958).

Further suggestions gratefully received - please post to my
personal e-mail address and I'll summarize responses to the list
at a future date.

Thank you.

James Steele, Ph.D.,
Dept of Archaeology,
University of Southampton,
Southampton SO9 5NH,

E-Mail: tjms@southampton.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 3 Aug 94 11:38 GMT
From: "Brian (slow back-swing) Durward"

I am a lecturer in the Department of Physiotherapy, Queen
Margaret College, Edinburgh and have just completed a PhD - The
Biomechanical Assessment of Rising to Stand and Sitting Down.
For this work I developed a clinical assessment tool capable of
measuring the distribution of vertical forces beneath the feet
and hands during rising to stand and sitting down.

Apart from my patient group (36 Stroke patients) I tested 120
normal subjects with an age range between 20-85. Consequently
I was able to derive symmetry levels for the entire group as well
as for age decades from 20s to 80+ years old.

If this type of symmetry data is of value to you then let me know
and I will give you more information.

Brian Durward

Brian Durward : Telephone 031 317 3644
Department of Physiotherapy : Fax 031 317 3256
Queen Margaret College : email phdurw@uk.ac.qmced.main
Edinburgh :
Scotland :
EH12 8TS :
Date: Wed, 3 Aug 1994 09:24:36 -0400
From: osteoknt@tiac.net (OsteoKinetics Corporation)

Our company has developed the Inertiator[TM] - a non-invasive
video-based system for the measurement of the inertial properties
of body segments. We will send you by regular mail an information
package that includes some sample output.

Yael Yona
Product Manager
OsteoKinetics Corporation
82 Stuart Road
Newton, MA 02159
Ph: (617) 235-4426
FAX: (6170 235-8953
e-mail: osteoknt@tiac.net

Date: 03 Aug 94 09:38:25 EDT
From: Ned Frederick

Joe Hamill published a nice study of L R symmetry in GRF's for
walking and running.

Hamill, J., Bates, BT,& Knutzen, KM. 1984. Ground reaction force
symmetries during walking and running. Research Quarterly for
Exercise and Sport 55, 289-293

E. C. Frederick, Ph.D.
Exeter Research, Inc.

Date: Wed, 3 Aug 1994 08:41:05 -0600 (CST)
From: "Steve Mccaw"

see D'Amico et al, Limb length discrepancy: an electrodynographic
analysis. Journal of the American Podiatry Medical Society,

Lawrence, D. Lateralization of weight in the presence of
structural short leg: a preliminary report. Journal of
Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 7:105-108, 1984.

Mahar, RK et al. Simulated leg-length discrepancy: its effect on
mean center of pressure position and postural sway. Archives of
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 66:822-824, 1985.

LLI has a very plausible relationship with many of the unilateral
injuries seen in athletes and non-athletes, yet it has been
basically ignored (as evidence by the unreliable measurement
techniques used to make clinical assessments). It is heartening
to see more work being done in this area.

Steve McCaw
Dept of HPERD
5120 Illinois State University
Normal, Ill 61790-5120
Phone (309)438-5307 Fax: (309)438-5559 e-mail SMCCAW@ILSTU.EDU
Date: Wed, 3 Aug 1994 10:37:49 -0500
From: Philip Schot

One of my interests has been in the area of bilateral functional
symmetry. While I have not encountered pressure distribution
asymmetry papers (I hadn't really looked), I have some work in
press that might be of interest and also did locate several
papers possibly of interest.

Schot, PK; Bates, BT; Dufek, JS. (due September 1994). Bilateral
performance symmetry during drop landings: a kinetic analysis.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

McCaw, ST; Bates, BT. (1992). Biomechanical implications of mild
leg length inequality. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 25:

Vagenas, G; Hoshizaki, TB. (1988). Evaluation of rearfoot
asymmetries in running with worn and new running shoes.
International Journal of Sports Biomechanics, 4: 220-230.

Hope these have some relevance.

:: Philip Schot, Ph.D. ::
:: Biomechanics Lab Director ::
:: Department of Human Kinetics ::
:: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee ::
:: P.O. Box 413 ::
:: Milwaukee, WI 53201 ::
:: Phone: (414) 229-6080 ::
:: Fax: (414) 229-5100 ::
:: Email: pschot@alpha2.csd.uwm.edu ::

Date: Wed, 3 Aug 94 13:31:44 PDT
From: jill mcnitt

We have presented at study on right vs left reaction forces
during landings of drops (0.69 meters), front saltos and back
saltos. These results were presented at ASB a few years back..
we are in the process of preparing the results for publication.
We also have right left differences in volleyball and basket ball
players during realistic spiking, blocking and rebounding
movements. Please, let me know if you would like additional

Jill McNitt-Gray
Univ. of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0652
Date: Thu, 04 Aug 94 09:12:11 EST
From: Prince

I am conducting research work related to Asymmetry during
locomotion and posture. Over the years, I have collected an
exhaustive list of reference and the posting via this electronic
media will not be easy. I will send you this list by mail.

Hoping that will help you in your research work,

Francois Prince, Ph.D.
Director Gait and Posture Lab
Professor-research in Orthopedics
Date: Sat, 06 Aug 1994 21:25:30 +1000
From: P.Bryner@pitvax.xx.rmit.edu.au

Dear Dr Steele,
Try the research dept at AngloEuropean College of Chiropractic
(Dr Breen, I think). There may be some publications in the
chiropractic literature because some of them have used scales (2
or 4) to try to determine functional problems in the spine or
pelvis. I believe some at AECC are doing some studies at your

Address = Anglo-European College of Chiropractic
12-14 Parkwood Drive

I'm not sure about the Parkwood Drive, but it definitely is in
Bournemouth. I hope that is enough to go on. I'm doing this from
memory as my email connection happens best from home - and AECC's
address is at work!

Peter Bryner
RMIT, School of Chiropractic and Osteopathy
Temporarily in Perth