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Jose Haroldo Cavalcante
11-22-1994, 03:19 AM
Dear Biomechers,

Thanks to Michael Lee and Victor Waide who helped me with my query about the
determination of shoulder, elbow and wrist centers. These are the answers:




1. Shoulder
Poppen NK, Walker PS (1976) Normal and abnormal motion of the
shoulder. JBJS 58-A: 195-201. "...the instant centers lay quite
close to each other and to the center of the humeral ball..."

2. Elbow
Morrey BF, Chao EYS (1976) Passive motion of the elbow joint. JBJS 58-A
501-508. ..."the axes of rotation of the elbow pass through the center of
the trochlea..."

3. Wrist
Youm et al. (1978) Kinematics of the wrist, JBJS 60-A: 423-431. ..."...a
fixed axis located in the head of the capitate ..."


These ref's are old, but still valid, I think.

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Michael Lee |
| Faculty of Health Sciences |
| University of Sydney |
| PO Box 170 |
| Lidcombe, NSW, 2141 |
| Australia |
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| [or m.lee@cchs.su.edu.au] |
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From: "VWAIDE@ollamh.ucd.ie" - Victor Waide
=========================================

Flexion-Extension Axis.

Morrey, Chao & An [1-4]
small locus of points around centre of trochlea.

Youm et al. [5]
fixed centre of rotation around centre of trochlea.

Amis et al. [6]
fixed flexion axis, which bisects axes of humerus and forearm (extended).

London [7]
fixed axis - defined by centres of arcs of trochlear suclus and capitellum
- except at extremes of flexion and extension.

An et al. [8]
fixed axis oblique to both proximal humeral and distal ulnar long axes in
the frontal plane.

Deland et al. [9]
approximate fixed axis with the centre being the approximate centre of the
trochlea and the capitellum.


Axis of Forearm Rotation (Pronation-Supination).

Morrey & Chao [1-2]
Natural axis of rotation passes through the distal portion of the ulna and
down the extended little finger.

Youm et al. [5]
Runs proximally from the distal end of the ulna to approximately the centre
of the capitellum.

An & Morrey [3]
Passes through the convex head of the radius in the proximal radioulnar
joint and through the convex articular surface of the ulna at the distal
radioulnar joint.

Cochran [10]
Passes through the capitellum and the centre of the head of the radius and
extends distally through the head of the ulna and on down to the extended
little finger.

Linscheid [11]
Passes from the centre of the radial head, obliquely, to a loci of points
around the fovea of the ulnar head, assuming the ulna is rigidly held.


References:

1. CHAO, E.Y. and MORREY, B.F. (1978):
Three-Dimensional Rotation of the Elbow.
J Biomech., 11: 57-73.

2. MORREY, B.F. and CHAO, E.Y.S. (1976):
Passive Motion of the Elbow Joint. A Biomechanical Analysis.
J. Bone and Joint Surg., 58-A: 501-508.

3. AN, K.N.; and MORREY, B.F. (1985):
Biomechanics of the Elbow.
The Elbow and Its Disorders, Ed.: Morrey, B.F.
W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, p.43-61.

4. AN, K.N.; and MORREY, B.F. (1990):
Biomechanics of the Elbow.
Biomechanics of Diarthrodial Joints Volume II, Ed.: Mow, V.C.;
Ratcliffe, A.; and Woo, S. L.-Y.
Springer-Verlag New York Inc., p.441-464.

5. YOUM, Y.; DRYER, R.F.; THAMBYRAJAH, K.; FLATT, A.E. and
SPRAGUE, B.L. (1979):
Biomechanical Analyses of Forearm Pronation-Supination and
Elbow Flexion-Extension.
J. Biomech., 12: 245-255.

6. AMIS, A.A.; DOWSON, D.; UNSWORTH, A.; MILLER, J.H.; and
WRIGHT, V. (1977):
An Examination of the Elbow Articulation with Particular Reference
to Variation of the Carrying Angle.
Eng. Med., 6: 76-80.

7. LONDON, J.T. (1981):
Kinematics of the Elbow.
J. Bone and Joint Surg., 63-A: 529-535.

8. AN, K.N.; MORREY, B.F. and CHAO, E.Y.S. (1984):
Carrying Angle of the Human Elbow Joint.
J. Orthop. Res., 1: 369-378.

9. DELAND, J.T.; GARG, A.; and WALKER, P.S. (1987):
Biomechanical Basis for Elbow Hinge-Distractor Design.
Clin. Orth. and Rel. Res. 215: 303-312.

10. COCHRAN, G.V.B. (1982):
Biomechanics of the Elbow-Forearm Complex.
The Elbow, Ed.: Wadsworth, T.G.
Churchill Livinstone, Edinburgh, p.31-47.

11. LINSCHEID, R.L. (1992):
Biomechanics of the Distal Radioulnar Joint.
Clin. Orth. and Rel. Res. 275: 46-55.
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Regards,

Jose' Haroldo de A. Cavalcante, Engineer

Motion Analysis Laboratory
SARAH Hospital SMHS 501 - cj. "A"
Brasilia-DF 70.330-150
BRAZIL

Phone: 55-61-319-1440
Fax: 55-61-319-1447
E-Mail: haroldo@lab01.sarah.br