View Full Version : Summery of neck strength info

unknown user
01-18-1995, 07:31 AM
To all biomch-lers,

Thanks very much for the responses to my inquiry about neck strengths.
Here come the summery of responses.

************************** The original inquiry ****************************

> I need static strength test information on the neck. I have found most
>strength tests are on limb joints or low back, but found nothing on the
>neck. It will be greatly appreciated if you can send me information about
>where I can find the information on neck strength.
>Brad Chen, Ph.D.
>Biomechanics Corp. of America

************************** Summery of responses ****************************

From: IN%"forstein@hsc.usc.edu" 13-JAN-1995 14:49:33.11


Check with Gary Yamaguchi Ph.D. at Arizona State University. He presented
some information on neck modeling, and might have the information your
looking for. I don't have an Email address for him, but He is a Prof
there. Hope your successful.

Micah Forstein M.S.
Motion Analysis Laboratory
Childrens Hospital Los Angeles

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From: IN%"anitav@merle.acns.nwu.edu" 13-JAN-1995 15:57:14.34


I have also been looking into isometric neck strength testing. Here is a
list of references I have compiled:

Berg HE, B. G., Tesch PA (1994) Dynamic neck strength training effect on
pain and function. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 75, 661-665.

Foust DR, C. D., Snyder RG, Baum JK (1973) Cervical range of motion and
dynamic response and strength of cervical muscles. SAE 17th Stapp Car Crash
Conference 285-308.

Highland TR, D. T., Vie LL, Russell GS (1992) Changes in isometric strength
and range of motion of the isolated cervical spine after eight weeks of
clinical rehabilitation. Spine 17, S77-S82.

Leggett SH, G. J., Pollock ML, Shank M, Carpenter DM, Holmes B, Fulton M
(1991) Quantitative assessment and training of isometric cervical extension
strength. Am J Sports Med 19, 653-659.

Levoska S, K.-K. S., Hamalainen O, Jamsa T, Vanharanta H (1992) Reliability
of a simple method of measuring isometric neck muscle force. Clin Biomech
7, 33-37.

Mayoux-Benhamou MA, W. M., Revel M (1989) Strength and cross-sectional area
of the dorsal neck muscles. Ergonomics 32, 513-518.

Moroney SP, S. A., Miller JAA (1988) Analysis and measurement of neck
loads. J Orthop Res 6, 713-720.

Petrofsky JS, P. C. (1982) The strength-endurance relationship in skeletal
muscle: its application to helmet design. Aviat Space Envir Med 365-369.

Pollock ML, G. J., Bamman MM, Leggett SH, Carpenter DM, Carr C, Cirulli J,
Matkozich J, Fulton M (1993) Frequency and volume of resistance training:
effect on cervical extension strength. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 74, 1080-1086.

Queisser F, B. R., Seidel H (1994) Control of positioning the cervical
spine and its application to measuring extensor strength. Clin Biomech 9,

Good Luck!

Anita Vasavada anitav@merle.acns.nwu.edu
Biomedical Engineering (312) 908-2696
Northwestern University

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From: IN%"steve@ortho1.ucsf.edu" "Robinovitch, Steve" 13-JAN-1995 16:10:46.84

See "Strength and Response of the Human Neck" by Mertz, H.L. and Patrick, L.M.,
Society of Automotive Engineers paper number 710855. They did static strength
tests of the neck in flexion/extension, etc. You can order the paper through SAE
in New York (don't know the phone number).

Steve Robinovitch

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From: IN%"parnianpour@ccl2.eng.ohio-state.edu" 13-JAN-1995 17:46:36.85

Please give my regards to CLifford Gross.
I remember some reference by Petrofsky while he was studying
the helmet and endurance of the neck muscles. If I come across
it I send you the details.
Mohamad Parnianpour

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From: IN%"James.Ashton-Miller@um.cc.umich.edu" 14-JAN-1995 19:54:39.43

look up papers by Moroney S.P., (one experimental
and one modeling paper), a paper on experimental
neck muscle pain by myself (J.A. Ashton-Miller in
Spine). We also have some 3-D data that has appeared
in Abstract form.
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From: IN%"PMILBURN@gandalf.otago.ac.nz" "Peter D. Milburn, x7460" 15-JAN-1995


There appear to be several references to neck strength in various
editions of the Proceedings of the Stapp Car Crash Conferences (eg.
Mertz, HJ & Patrick, LM Strength and response of the human neck, Proc
15th Stapp Car Crash Conf, Warrendale, PA: SAE Paper No. 710855:207,
1971). Also, Chapter 8 in Reid, SE & Reid, SE Jr Head & Neck
Injuries in Sports, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 110-125, 1984
has some interesting experimental data based on impact studies.

Peter D. Milburn
Postgraduate Physiotherapy
University of Otago
PO Box 913
New Zealand
Tel 64-3-4797460
Fax 64-3-4790401

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From: IN%"mppoling@FLASH.LakeheadU.CA" "Michael P. Poling" 15-JAN-1995

Would appreciate a summary of responses to this, if you wouldn't mind. I
could use that info as well. Thanks!
Mike Poling
Canadian Back Institute
Thunder Bay, Ontario

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From: IN%"mys@ip.chalmers.se" 16-JAN-1995 05:12:47.56

Dear Dr. Chen,

Maybe some of the following references could be of help:

Mertz, H.J.; Patrick, L.M. (1967): Investigation of the Kinematics and
Kinetics of Whiplash. Proc. 11th STAPP Car Crash Conf., Anaheim,
California, USA, pp. 267-317, SAE Inc., New York, USA, LC 67-22372

Mertz, H.J.; Patrick, L.M. (1971): Strength and Response of the Human
Neck. Proc. of 15th Stapp Car Crash Conf., pp. 207-255, SAE Inc., New
York, LC 67-22372

Mertz, H.J.; Neathery, R.F.; Culver, C.C. (1973): Performance Requirements
and Characteristics of Mechanical Necks. In: Human Impact Response, eds.
W.F King and H.J Mertz, pp. 263-287, Plenum Press, New York, LC 73-80138,
ISBN 0-306-30745-6

Prasad, P.; Mital, N.; King, A.I.; Patrick, L.M. (1975): Dynamic Response
of the Spine During +Gx Acceleration. Proc. 19th STAPP Car Crash Conf., SAE
Inc., USA, pp. 869-897

Clemens, H.J.; Burow, K. (1972): Experimental Investigation on Injury
Mechanisms Of Cervical Spine at Frontal and Rear-Front Vehicle Impacts.
Proc. 16th STAPP Car Crash Conf., SAE paper no. 720960, SAE Inc., New York,
USA, LC 67-22372
Deng, Y.-C. (1989): Anthropomorphic Dummy Neck Modelling and Injury
Considerations. Accid. Anal. & Prev. Vol. 21, No 1, pp. 85-100

Foster, J.K.; Kortge, J.O.; Volanin, M.J. (1977): Hybrid III - A
Biomechanically Based Crash Test Dummy. Proc of 21st STAPP Car Crash Conf.,
pp. 973-1014, SAE Inc., New York, USA, LC 67-22372

Foust, D.R.; Chaffin, D.B.; Snyder, R.G.; Baum, J.K. (1973): Cervical Range
of Motion and Dynamic Response and Strength of Cervical Muscles. Proc of
17th STAPP Car Crash Conf., Oklahoma, pp. 285-308, Soc. Automotive Eng.,
Inc., New York, USA, LC 67-22372

Melvin, J.W.; McElhaney, J.H.; Roberts, V.L. (1972): Improved Neck
Simulation for Anthropometric Dummies. Proc. of Sixteenth Stapp Car Crash
Conf., pp. 45-60, SAE Inc., New York, LC 67-22372

Tarriere, C.; Sapin, C. (1969): Biokinetic Study of the Head to Thorax
Linkage. Proc. 13th Stapp Car Crash Conf., pp. 365-380, SAE, New York, LC

SAE (1986): Human Tolerance to Impact Conditions as Related to Motor
Vehicle Design. SAE J885 JUL86, In: 1993 SAE Handbook, Volume 4, On-Highway
Vehicles and Off Highway Machinery, pp. 34.259-34.276, ISBN 1-56091-326-6

Best regards,

Mats Svensson

| |
| Mats Y. Svensson, Ph.D. |
| Dept. of Injury Prevention |
| Chalmers University of Technology |
| S-412 96 Goteborg |
| |
| Phone: +46 31 772 3644 |
| Fax: +46 31 772 3660 |
| E-mail: mys@ip.chalmers.se |

************************************************** **************************

From: IN%"jfyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw" 16-JAN-1995 20:36:33.58

You may be able to find the measurement of neck strength from "Manual
Muscel Testing". Here is a reference:
Kendall F.P., McCreary E.K., and Provance P.G.: Muscles- Testing and
function, (4th eds.), Williams & Wilkins, 1993.

J. F. Yang, P.T.

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From: IN%"msanders@sirius.uvic.ca" 17-JAN-1995 12:56:34.82

Brad Chen,

Regarding neck strength,

Try these references,

H. Yamada. Strength of Biological Materials. F. G. Evans ed. Baltimore, Maryland
: The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1970.

N. Yoganandan, F. Pintar, C. R. Wilson, and A. Sances, Jr. In vitro biomechanica
l study of female geriatric cervical vertebral bodies. Journal of Biomedical En
gineering, 12: 97-101, 1990.

S. A. Gozulov, Y. Korzhen, V. G. Skrupknik, and Y. N. Sushkov. Issledovaniye pro
chnosti pozvonkov cheloveka na szhatiye. Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii, i Embriol
ogii, 43-51, 1966.

O. Messerer. Uber Elasticitat und Festigkeit der menschlichen Knochen. Stuttgart
, Germany, 1880.

These are the only ones I have found,

Mike Sanders
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Victoria
P.O. Box 3055
Victoria, B.C.
Canada V8W 3P6

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From: IN%"sli@jim.smpp.nwu.edu" 18-JAN-1995 11:43:27.53

Hello, Brad. There have some papers published regarding isometric strength
of the neck. Some of them are as follows:

Leggett et al., "Quantitative assessment and training of isometric cerivical
extension strength", The American J. of Sports Medicine, Vol 19, No 6, pp 653-65
9, 1991.

McGill et al., "Passive Stiffness of the Human Neck in Flexion, Extension,
and Lateral Bending", Clin. Biomech. Vol 9, No 3, pp 193-198, 1994.

Moroney et al. "Analysis and Measurement of Neck Loads", J. Orth. Res. 6:713-
720, 1988.

There are some similar papers on this topic. I am very interested in this
part of research myself. I hope you can post a summary of the responses
you get on this net-work.

Siping Li, Ph.D.
Rehab. Inst. of Chicago
Tel. (312) 503-0454
Fax. (312) 503-5101
E-mail: sipingli@nwu.edu

************************* The end of summery *******************************

By the way, from the responses one can see that there are many papers from
one source -- SAE. I got the following address and phone number which may be
useful for you to order these SAE papers ($12 per paper):

Atn. Customer Sale
SAE International
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, PA 15096-0001
Tel: (412)-776-4841
Fax: (412)-776-9765

Brad Chen, Ph.D.
Senior Biomechanist
Biomechanics Corp. of America