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Erwin Zwart
05-20-1995, 09:41 PM
Because the question I dropped on e-mail last week resulted in a lot of
reactions, I have made a brief summary of the references that have been
very useful. I want to thank everyone who has taken the effort to respond=

on my question, and maybe this summary can be of any use to someone else.=


>From the director of the Gait and Biomechanics Lab(gsrash01@ulkyvm.louis=
ville.edu): =

#D.E.Pascoe "Impact of book bags on gait cycle & posture" at last years
ACSM conference. She is abstract #787, page S140 in Medicine & Science in=

Sports & Exercise, Supplement to Vol 26, No 5 May 1994.

>From Marc Resnick (resnick@eng.fiu.edu):
#Datta and Ramanathan, Ergonomic comparison of seven modes carrying loads=

on the horizontal plane. Ergonomics, 1971, vol.14, no. 2, 269-278.

>From Kim Burton (kburton@cix.compulink.co.uk):
Burton AK, Spinal strain from shopping bags with and without handles.
Applied Ergonomics, 1986, 17:19-23.

>From Wayne. E. Maschette a part of his paper: "A pilot cross-sectional
survey of static posture of 12 to 16 year old adolescents"
(wayxx@deakin.edu.au): "The second part of this pilot survey was to
analyse the results and report trends found in the data. It made sense to=

consider two distinct categories of postural variation. First, the
posterior view to indicate the lateral variation of the left to right
symmetry was reported. Second, the lateral view to indicate the
anterioposterior variation of the front to back segmental alignment was
reported.

Total group, total girls and total boys were considered for lateral
variation and the results reported in tables 1, 2 and 3. In table 1 the
overall results show that the majority of the children possessed average =
to
good posture on all sites with the exception of the horizontal alignment =
of
the shoulders. In this case the information points to 2.5% of the childre=
n
having one shoulder markedly higher than the other and 43.2% of the
children having one shoulder slightly higher than the other. Anecdotal
evidence has often pointed to heavy schoolbags as the cause of this
problem.

When the girls and boys were statistically separated, tables 2 & 3, the
same basic picture emerged with the horizontal alignment of the shoulder=
s
being the most notable statistic. The girls posterior shoulder measuremen=
t
tended to be slightly lower than the boys but the relative numbers (girls=
=3D
75, boys =3D 205) could have meant that a small variation in the numbers =
of
girls assessed in one category or another would have more impact on the
overall girls scores."

>From Franck Barbier (barbier@univ-valenciennes.fr):
/Holewijn 90/, Holewijn M., Physiological strain due to load carrying,
European journal of applied physiology, vol 61, p 237-245, 1990.

/Kinoshita 85/, Kinoshita H., Effects of different loads and carrying
systems on selected biomechanical parameters describing walking gait,
Ergonomics, vol 28, n!9, p 1347-1362, 1985.

/Legg 85/, Legg S.J., Mahanty A., Comparison of five modes of carrying a =
load
close to the trunk, Ergonomics, vol 28, n! 12, p 1653-1660, 1985.

/Martin 86/, Martin P.E., Nelson R.C., The effect of carried loads on the=

walking patterns of men and women, Ergonomics, vol 29, n! 10, p 1191-120=
2,
1986.

The references I've found about carrying schoolbags in particulary are:
Vozenilkova, H. Et al. Investigation of the effect of the weight of
schoolbags and other factors on the posture of children. Ceskoslovenska
Hygiena, 1988, 33/7-8, p. 419-425.

Kyral, J. Emr, J. Nov=E9 odlehcene typy skolnich aktovek pro prevenci
vadnych postoju. Acta Chir. Orthop. Traum. Cech. 53.1986. s.
542-546.

Vozenilkova, H. Vanickova, M. Jerabkova, A. Prispevek k problematice
vahy skolnich aktovek na ZDS. Cs. Hyg. 22,1977, s. 153-157.

Becker, M.C. und Schlegel, K.F. Schultasche und Haltung. Kinderheilkunde
92, 1965, p. 7-14.

Malhotra, M.S. and Sen Gupta, J. Carrying schoolbags by children.
Ergonomics 8, p. 55-60.

Kenntner, G. Gebr=E4uche und leistungsf=E4higkeit des menschen im tragen =
von
lasten, Biogeographica vol.3, 1973.

Hazebroek-Kampschreur, A.A.J.M. Trunk abnormalties in adolescence: a
school health care based epidemiological cohort study, 1993.

Thank you all for your reactions. If you would like more information
please write to: j.f.m.molenbroek@io.tudelft.nl Claartje ten Have