View Full Version : loading of the wrist

Duran Nihat Yetkinler
07-03-1995, 05:39 AM
Hi Netters,
While ago, I requested information about "loading of the wrist". Here is the
original request and followed by the responses, and two book names that I
found very informative.

Hi Netters,
I am trying to design a study that will show the differences among several
treatment methods (external fixator, pins, etc..) of distal radius fractures.
In order to design a clinically relevant study I am interested to apply
physiologic load across the wrist joint. In order to achieve this I need to
know how much force been transferred through wrist joint during several
movements of hand such as, extension and flexion of the hand, extension and
flexion of the fingers, gripping etc.. So far, I couldn't find any relevant
study to address these issues. Thanks for your attention
As usual I will post all the answers in this newsgroup.

Dr. Yetkinler,

Several studies out of the Mayo Clinic have looked at wrist forces. I'm
looking specifically at an article from the Journal of Hand Surgery
15A(3):393-400, 1990 by Horii et al. They list three references I've yet to
follow up on:

1. Cooney WP, Chao EYS. Biomechanical analysis of static forces in the thumb
during hand function. J Bone Joint Surg 1977;59A:27-36.

2. Chao EYS, Opgrande JD, Axmear FE. Three-dimensional force analysis of
finger joints in selected isometric hand functions. J Biomech

3. An KN, Chao EYS, Cooney WP, Linscheid RL. Forces in the normal and
abnormal hand. J Orhop Res 1985;3:202-211.

Mind you, this is just a start. Good luck in your research efforts!

Don Anderson.


Donald D. Anderson, Ph.D. AA SS RRR III
ASRI Biomechanics Research Laboratory A A S S R R I
320 E. North Avenue - 10th Floor S.T. A A S R R I
Pittsburgh, PA 15212 AAAA S RRR I
ph. (412) 359-6479 fax: (412) 359-3856 A A S S R R I
e-mail: don@biomechanics.asri.edu A A SS R R III

In most wrist experiments researchers have used one of 2 methods
to load the wrist. Some have potted the distal metacarpals and applied
loads directly to the wrist using an Instron or MTS machine. Others,
including our lab, have applied forces to the major wrist flexors and
extensors (ECRL, ECRB, ECU, FCU, FCR, and sometimes the APL). In many of
our static experiments, including some with external wrist fixators, we have
positioned the forearm with the hand towards the ceiling, and hung 5 lb
weights to the wrist tendons (FCR, FCU, ECU, and ECRB/ECRL). In our dynamic
wrist joint motion simulator we have determined and applied the forces
to cause dynamic wrist motion.
A summary of this information is in a book, "Biomechanics of the
Wrist Joint" edited by Kai-Nan An, Richard A. Berger, and William P.
Cooney. Springer-Verlag, 1991. See chapter 5 on Force Analysis.
Did you do a literature search that included the J of Hand
Surgery? If you had, you probably would have found much of this info.
Good luck.

Fred Werner wernerf@vax.cs.hscsyr.edu
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
SUNY Health Science Center
750 E. Adams Street
Syracuse, NY 13210

The name of two books are:

Biomechanics of the wrist joint: Kai-Nan An, Richard A. Berger, adn William
P.Cooney III.1991, Springer-Verlag.

Biomechanics of the hand: A Basic research Study. Edmund Y S Chao, Kai-Nan
An, William P Cooney III, and Ronald L Linscheid. 1989. World Scientific.

Finally, I would like to thank to Dr Edmund Y S Chao for his additional
information about the topic.

Duran N Yetkinler