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Shane Preston
07-04-1995, 08:20 PM
Dear Biomch-l members,

I would like to express my appreciation to all those who replied to
my earlier posting regarding modelling of human motion.

I am currently chasing up the information contained within these
posts, thank you again.

Here is a list of replies I received.

START REPLIES.


Shane,

I only have time for a short note right now. I am basically going to be
out of touch for the next two months but when I get back at it I will
contact you again. I am moving to another university so I will have to
get in touch with you.

I completed my Ph.D. thesis on computer simulation of human motion about 2
years ago and would be very interested in sharing ideas with you. For
now I would direct you to a couple of authors whose papers you should
find and read.
Dapena, J. (1981) Simulation of modified human airborne movements.
Journal of Biomechanics 14, 81-89.

Armstrong and Green(1985) The dynamics of articulated rigid bodies
for purposes of animation. The Visual Computer 1, 231-240

Meglan, D.A. (1991) Enhanced analysis of human locomotion. Ph.D. Thesis,
Ohio State University

Yeadon, M.R. (1990) The simulation of aerial movement I - IV, Journal of
Biomechanics 23, 59 - 89.

These will all give you lots to think about this summer. Good Luck.

I will contact you in the fall.

Pierre

J. Pierre Baudin, Ph.D.
Moving to Acadia University
Wolfville, Nova Scotia
Canada



Shane:

You may want to take a look at my Ph.D. dissertation, or at the
Journal of Biomechanics paper that I wrote based on the dissertation:

**Dapena, J. A simulation method for predicting the effects of
modifications in human airborne movements. Ph.D. Dissertation. University
of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 1979.

**Dapena, J. Simulation of modified human airborne movements. J. Biomech.
14:81-89, 1981.


Recently, I have adapted my computer programs for use with
Zatsiorsky's 16-segment body model. I am currently using my simulation
model on a regular basis for the analysis of the top American high jumpers.
(I do a lot of "service" work for USA Track & Field.)

A guy that you will certainly want to check is Maurice ("Fred")
Yeadon. He has his own model for the simulation of airborne motions. His
dissertation (like mine) was on his airborne simulation method, and he has
published several journal papers on the topic. His email address is:
M.R.Yeadon@lut.ac.uk

Two of my students (Teresa Braff and Orly Nicklass) did theses on
the simulation of the pole-borne phase of pole vaulting, based on an
extension of my own model (which in its normal state is good only for
airborne motion). You may also want to look at a paper by Mont Hubbard on
the simulation of pole vaulting. It appeared in J. Biomech, probably around
1983 or 1985 or so. Sorry, but I don't know his email address. I do know
that he works in engineering at the University of California at Davis.

Robert McNeill Alexander also has a very good paper on the
simulation of the high jump TAKEOFF. The reference is:

**Alexander, R.McN. Optimum take-off techniques for high and long jumps.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 329:3-10, 1990.

Trying to simulate the whole shebang (takeoff and airborne) is
pretty ambitious! Good luck.

I am about to leave the country for three weeks, starting on Monday,
so I will not be able to correspond with you for awhile if you have any
questions. Sorry!

Jesus Dapena
---
Jesus Dapena
Department of Kinesiology
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
1-812-855-8407 (office phone)
dapena@valeri.hper.indiana.edu (email)



Shane,

One place to start on human motion modeling would be the
University of Pennsylvania. Contact Welton "Tripp" Becket
at becket@graphics.cis.upenn.edu .

Good Luck,

Rush Green
Boeing Commercial Airplane Group
Seattle, WA
grerfx00@ccmail.iasl.ca.boeing.com



Shane,

You might want to try the web site

http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~hms/

It is for the University of Pennsylvania's (U.S.A.) Center for Human
Modeling and Simulation. It has much information and some good contact
points.

Best of luck,

Dan Ferris

Biomechanics Laboratory
University of California at Berkeley
dferris@uclink2.berkeley.edu
http://garnet.berkeley.edu/~hbbiomxl/dferris/



Hi Shane,

I did my PhD on Multibody dynamics simulations of human locomotion and part
of my thesis is a big literature review. I think I have it laying around
home somewhere- if you like I can see about emailing it to you. I think
there is a summary of some of my thesis stuff buried in
magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu /pub/gaitlab

I'll look for things over the weekend and send you email next week.

--dwight

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Dwight Meglan, PhD | Developers of complete surgery simulation
Engineering Coordinator | training systems and surgery simulation
High Techsplanations, Inc. | creation software tools
6001 Montrose Rd., Suite 902 |
Rockville, MD 20852-4874 | "Witty, yet erudite saying goes here..."
301 984 3706 x38 |
301 984 2104 : FAX |
dwight@ht.com | http://www.ht.com



Shane,

I did a fairly similar project for my dissertation where I used a 13
DOF walking model to simulate the gait of cerebral palsied children. I
generated the equations of motion for my model using the software
package AUTOLEV which is based on Kane's method of dynamics.
Unfortunately, most articles written by people who do dynamic modeling
concentrate more on the results of their study and not so much on how
they generated their model (I'm currently writing two such articles
from my dissertation work and am guilty of this). Although AUTOLEV is a
great package for generating equations of motion it requires a fairly
thorough understanding of Kane's method. I was fortunate enough to have
taken a grad course in dynamic modeling of the musculoskeletal system
from a professor who was a student of Kane. Some of his articles that
may help are:

Yamaguchi, G.T. "Performing whole-body simulations of gait with 3-D,
dynamic musculoskeletal models". Chapter 43 in Multiple Muscle Systems.
ed. Jack Winters and Savio Woo, Springer-Verlag 1990. ISBN 0-387-97307-9

Yamaguchi, G.T. "Restoring Unassisted Natural Gait to Paraplegics via
Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation: A Computer Simulation Study", IEEE
Transactions on Biomedical Engineeing. vol 37, No 9, Sept 1990.

He is currently in the process of writing a book on dynamic modeling of
the musculoskeletal system but unfortunately it probably won't be ready
for a while. However, feel free to contact me if you have any specific
questions. I'm always ready to kick ideas around about dynamic modeling.

Regards,
Dan

P.S. I will be out of town for couple weeks, but after July 10 you should
be able to contact me.


Daniel W. Moran, Ph.D
Junior Fellow
The Neurosciences Institute
10640 John J. Hopkins Drive
San Diego, California 92121
phone: 619-626-2133
email: dan@nsi.edu



Dear Shane Preston:

In response to your inquiry about information on computer modeling of human
motion, may I suggest you talk to Dr. Marcus Pandy at the University of
Texas in Austin. Currently, he is doing a lot with computer modeling in
the biomechanics lab along with his Ph.D. students. I hope this
information helps.

Sincerely,

Jason Karp

--recent graduate of Penn State University and soon-to-be graduate student
at University of Calgary

jrk133@psu.edu

-------------------------------------------
Bin Xia, Ph.D. Candidate |
Room 10, Intramural Building |
Center for Locomotion Studies |
Department of Exercise and Sports Science |
Penn State University |
University Park, PA 16802 |
(814) 865-1972 (Office) |
(814) 867-7928 (Home/Fax) |
===========================================



Hi, Shane,
One of the articles I think you may be interested in is "Computer
simulatiion in sport and industry" by Mont Hubbard (J. Biomechanics
Vol.26, Suppl.1, pp. 53-61, 1993).

Bing Yu, Ph.D.
Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN 55905, USA




If you are not already aware of the computer program AUTOLEV, you may find
it highly worthwhile to look into this. It is a symbol manipulator for
dynamics. I have used it fairly extensively in connection with analyzing
human motions, and it has been a great help to me. It is handled by OnLine
Dynamics in Sunnyvale, California. Their email address is AUTOLEV@AOL.COM.

All good wishes for the success of your work,
TRK




Here is one possible source of information. I don't quite remember Kane's
method, but it must be the one using Lagrangian equation. My approach was using
the angular momentum conservation law for the airborne movements only. But you
will see some other aspects such as body segment parameters, etc.

Kwon, Y.-H. (1993). The effects of body segment parameter estimation on the
experimental simulation of a complex airborne movement. Ph.D. Dissertation,
Pennsylvania State University.

You will be able to obtain this dissertation through inter-library loan or from
UMI.

Young-Hoo Kwon, Ph.D.
Senior Researcher
Korea Sport Science Institute
223-19 Gongneung-2-Dong
Seoul, 139-242 KOREA
Phone: +82-2-9709-555
Fax: +82-2-9709-502
Internet: y-hkwon@kssisun.kssi.re.kr




Try:

Maarten F. Bobbert
akgroep Functionele Anatomie
Faculteit der Bewebingswetenschappen
Vrije Universiteit
v.d. Boechorststraat 9
1081 BT Amsterdam
The Netherlands

Good luck!

Matt Morrissey




Dear Shane:

Here are some additional simulation references:

Amirouche et al (1990) Analytical method for the analysis and simulation
of human locomotion. J Biomech Eng 112:379-386

Chen et al (1986) Dynamic modelling for implementation of a right turn
in bipedal walking. J Biomechanics 19(3):195-206

Davy and Audu (1987) A dynamic optimization technique for predicting
muscle forces in the swing phase of gait. J Biomechanics 20(2): 187-201

Hatze, H (1980) Neuromusculoskeletal control systems modeling - A
critical survey of recent developments. IEEE Trans Auto Cont
AC-25(3): 375-385

Hatze and Venter (1981) Practical activation and retention of locomotion
constraints in neuromuscuolskeletal control system models. J
Biomechanics 14(12): 873-877

Hemami et al (1982) Initiation of walk and tiptoe of a planar nine-link
biped. Math Biosci 61: 163-189

Ju and Mansour (1988) Simulation of the double limb support phase of
human gait. J Biomech Eng 110: 223-229.

Marshall et al (1985) A general Newtonian simulation of an n-segment
open chain model. J Biomechanics 18(5): 359-367.

Meglan, D.A. (1991) Enhanced Analysis of Human Locomotion. dissertation
at Ohio State University.

Mena et al (1981) Analysis and sythesis of human swing leg motion during
gait and its clinical applications. J Biomechanics 14(12): 823-832

Onyshko and Winter (1980) A mathematical model for the dynamics of human
locomotion. J Biomechanics 13: 361-368.

Pandy and Berme - 4 papers in the J Biomechanics - 21(12) and 22(6/7),
1988 and 1989.

Van den Bogert et al (1989) Simulation of quadrupedal locomotion using a
dynamic rigid body model. J Biomechanics 22(1): 33-41

Yamaguchi, G.T. (1990) Performing whole-body simulations of gait with
3-D, dynamic musculoskeletal models. in Multiple Muscle Systems:
Biomechanics and Movement Organization. Berlin, Springer-Verlag: 663-679.

Yamaguchi and Zajac (1990) IEEE Trans Biomed Eng BME-37(9): 886-902.

Yang and Winter (1990) Postural dynamics of walking in humans. Biol
Cybern 62:321-330.


One major obstacle that you have no doubt recognized is the large amount
of error present in film analysis data. When this is coupled with any
errors added by the integration algorithm, it can become overwhelming.
The choice of integration algorithm can also affect your success.

Good luck!

Louise Gilchrist
Department of Exercise and Sport Science
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
250 HHP Building
Greensboro, NC 27412-5001
gilchris@hamlet.uncg.edu




Dear Shane,

In reply to you request about information related to
Computer Modeling of Human Motion, I suggest you look at
two articles Dr. Manfred Vieten and I (Dr. Clifford Larkins)
published in the Proceedings of the XIth International Symposium
of International Society of Biomechanics Annual Meeting. It
sounds like your project is very similar to what we did.
However, I am not sure what you mean by "lumped mass linkage."
We developed a mathematical and computer model of jumping that
would allow the coach to train long jumpers (and high jumpers
if desired) on computer using a systematic procedure. The model
was a spring mass system that reflects all features that deter-
mines jump distance. Motion Analysis and Force data was collected
just as you suggests. Melvin R. Ramey has also developed a
an excellent model for jumping as well.
I have also been working on a similar model for the triple
jump for some time now. I am a coach as well as a researcher.
If you would like to discuss your work with me I would be
interested in hear from you. I believe that the Proceedings
article would be of great help to you.

I. A Mathematical Model of Human Dynamic Locomotion:
The Development and Application of the Model
Clifford Larkins and Manfred Vieten

2. A Mathematical Model of Human Dynamic Locomotion:
Theoretical Bases of the Model
Manfred Vieten and Clifford Larkins

The date of the Poceedings:
ISBS
June 23-26, 1993
Amherst, Hassachusetts

PS Please forgive the typing errors, I am on a new system
and I have not learned to edit yet.


Sincerely,

Clifford Larkins, Ph.D.




Hello! I saw your note on BIOMECH-L and as you're interested in getting into contact with other labs
working on computer simulation of human motion, I thought I would drop you a line. My lab is using
3-D predictive dynamic modelling to simulate bipedal walking, but our orientation is rather different -
specifically we are interested in using predictive modelling to reconstruct the likely gait of early
hominids. We also start with kinematics, from our own two-camera video based gait analysis system,
and make simultaneous records with a Kistler forceplate. We have done about 20 people, and some
chimpanzees. We then use a commercial dynamic modeller to build inertial models (androids) with
appropriate segment lengths and mass distribution characteristics for our current experiment, and run
through it motion equations derived from our kinematics work. For example, we have run
chimp bipedalism through a model of the fossil hominid Lucy with appropriate segment
proportions and either human-like or chimp-like inertial properties.

Robin Crompton



Shane Preston

School of Engineering
University of Ballarat
Victoria, Australia.

Email: spreston@fs3.ballarat.edu.au
Telephone: 61 53 279 111
Fax: 61 53 279 137