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Cagatay Basdogan
07-17-1995, 08:44 AM
Thanks to all who responded to my inquiry. Listed below
is a summary of responses to my post:

Original post:

>Dear biomch-l subscribers:

>I am interested in research studies and avaliable commercial equipment
>related to enhancing running performance of humans using energy-returning
>mechanisms such as shoes with springs in them.

>I also remember a posting in Biomch-l, approximately a year ago,
>about a below knee prosthetic device that improves the efficiency
>of running, but I am unable to find it in the Biomch-l archive.
>I would be very pleased if you could point me towards studies or
>products in this area.

>Cagatay Basdogan, Ph.D
>Research Scientist
>MusculoGraphics Inc.
>Northwestern University Research Park

>e-mail: basdogan@nwu.edu


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Dear Cagatay,

The following paper describes the 'tuning' of a running track's stiffness to
increase running speed and reduce the risk of injury:

McMahon, T.A. (1984) Mechanics of Locomotion. International J Robotics Res.
Vol 3, Issue 2, pp 4-28

Hope this helps!

David.
__________________________________________________ _______________________

David Hynd
Biomedical Engineering Group
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Surrey
Guildford
Surrey GU2 5XH

d.hynd@surrey.ac.uk

http://www.surrey.ac.uk/MechEng/BioMed/homepage.html

__________________________________________________ _______________________

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Date: Wed, 5 Jul 1995 09:00:56 -0400 (EDT)
From: Richard Wells
To: Cagatay Basdogan
Subject: Re: enhancing running performance
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Cagatay,
See papers by David Winter on energy returning B/K prosthesis and
by F. Prince and Winter on energy retern from prosthetic feet.
R

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From: j-patton@nwu.edu
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 14:10:10 -0500
X-Sender: pattn@merle.acns.nwu.edu

Bob Soutas-Little at Michigan State did a study a few years back on the
Brooks Fusion Running shoe, designed in the spirit of the McMahon Srung
track. You may want to EMAIL him about it (soutas@egr.msu.edu).

JIM PATTON (j-patton@nwu.edu)

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Date: 10 Jul 95 08:53:59 EDT
From: Ned Frederick
To: Cagatay Basdogan
Subject: Re: enhancing running performance

Some references for your information:

Frederick, E.C., E.T. Howley, S.K. Powers. Lower Oxygen cost while running in
air cushion type shoe. Med. Sci. Sports and Exercise, 12(2): 81, 1980

Frederick, E. C. and T.E. Clarke. Body size and biomechanical consequences. In:
R.C. Cantu and W.J. Gillespie (Eds.) Sports medicine, Sports Science: Bridging
the Gap. pp. 47-57, Collamore Press, Lexington, MA 1982

Clarke, T.E., E.C. Frederick. Dynamic load displacement characteristics of
various midsole materials. J. Biomechanics 15(4): 340, 1982 A

Clarke, T.E., E.C.Frederick and L.B. Cooper. The effects of shoe cushioning upon
selected force and temporal patterns in running. Med. Sci. Sports and Exercise
14(2): 144, 1982 A

Frederick, E.C., J.T. Daniels, and J.W Hayes. The effect of shoe weight on the
aerobic demands of running. Int. J. Sports Medicine. 2(2): 28, 1982 A


Frederick, E. C. Measuring the effects of shoes and surfaces on the economy of
locomotion. In: Nigg, B.M. and B.A. Kerr (Eds.) Biomechanical Aspects of Sport
Shoes and Playing Surfaces. The University of Calgary, pp. 93-106, 1983


Frederick, E. C., T. E. Clarke, J.L. Larsen and L.B. Cooper. The effects of shoe
cushioning on the oxygen demands of running. In: Nigg, B.M. and B.A. Kerr (Eds.)
Biomechanical Aspects of Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces. The University of
Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, pp. 107-114, 1983

Clarke, T.E. , E. C. Frederick and L.B. Cooper. Biomechanical measurement of
running shoe cushioning properties. ibid. pp. 25-34, 1983

Clarke, T.E., E. C. Frederick and L.B. Cooper. The effects of shoe cushioning
upon ground reaction forces in running. Int. J. Sports Med. 4(4):247-251, 1983

Frederick, E.C., Extrinsic biomechanical aids. In: M. Williams (Ed.), Ergogenic
Aids in Sport, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, pp.323-339,1983 CH

Frederick, E. C., Physiological and ergonomics factors in running shoe design.
Applied Ergonomics 15(4): 281-287, 1984

Frederick, E. C., J.T. Daniels and J.W. Hayes The effect of shoe weight on the
aerobic demands of running. In: Bachl, N. , L. Prokop, and R. Suckert (Eds.)
Current Topics in Sports Medicine, Proceedings of the World Congress of Sports
Medicine. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Vienna, pp. 616-625, 1984

Frederick, E.C., T.E. Clarke, C.L. Hamill. The effect of running shoe design on
shock attenuation. In: E.C. Frederick (Ed.), Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces,
Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL pp. 190-198, 1984 CH

Robinson, J.R., E.C. Frederick and L.B. Cooper. Running participation and foot
dimensions. Med. Sci. Sports and Exercise 16(2): 200, 1984 A


Frederick , E. C. The energy cost of load carriage on the feet during running.
In: Winter, D.A., R. W. Norman, R. P. Wells, K. C. Hayes, and A. E. Patla
(Editors), Biomechanics IX-B Human Kinetics Publ., Champaign, IL, pp.295-300,
1985

Frederick, E.C., Synthesis, experimentation and the biomechanics of economical
movement. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise. 17(1): 44-47, 1985

Frederick, E.C., E.T. Howley, S.K. Powers. Lower oxygen cost while running in
soft soled shoes. Research Quarterly 57: 174-177 , 1986

McMahon, T.A., G.A. Valiant, and E.C. Frederick. Groucho running: a
dimensionless group controlling the compliance of running. J. Appl. Physiol.
62(6): 2326-2337, 1987


Frederick, E.C. Scale effects in running. In: P.R.Cavanagh (Editor) Biomechanics
of Distance Running, Human Kinetics Publ. Champaign, IL. 1990. pp. 307-320 CH


Frederick, E.C. Economy of Movement. In: P.O. Astrand & R.J. Shephard (Eds.)
Sports and Endurance: The Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine. Chapter 17.
Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991, pp. 181-187 CH

__________________________________________________ _____________________
E. C."Ned" Frederick, Ph.D. E-Mail:72735.77@Compuserve.com
Exeter Research, Inc.
8 Chestnut Street Telephone:603.772.2505
Exeter, NH 03833-1859 (USA) Fax:603.772.5463
__________________________________________________ ______________________