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George, Terrence E.
10-23-1995, 05:40 AM
Hello biomch-lers,
here is a summary of references I have obtained regarding a structural
analysis of braces. At the Assistive Technology Research Center (ATRC), we
are currently attempting a study using strain gauges on otherwise unmodified
braces. The subjects in our study have paraplegia and ambulate using a swing
through gait with crutches and the long leg braces (foot to above knee).
Additions to this list are welcome.

Abou Ghaida, H. I., Hull, M. L. and Rab, G.T. (1987-88). An instrumented
brace for study of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Biomater. Artif. Cells
Artif. Organs, 15, 719-735.
Anderson, M. H., and Bray, J. J. (1964). The UCLA Functional Long Leg Brace.
Clin. Orthop. 37, 98-109.
Berme, N., Lawes, P., Solomonidis, and Paul, J. P. (1975). A shorter pylon
transducer for measurement of prosthetic forces and moments during
amputee gait. Engineering in Medicine, 4, No. 4, 6-8.
Canty, T. J., (1951). Functional Full Length Leg Brace. A Prosthetic Aid in
the Treatment for Poliomyelitis, Flaccid Paralysis, and Fracture Cases.
Am J Surgery. 81, 474-480.
Chu, Taiming and Gent, Alan N. A Bonding Technique for Strian Gage Attachment
on Polypropylene Orthosis. Proceedings of the RESNA 1995 Annual
Conference, 15, 171-173.
Coghlan, J.K., Robinson, C. E., Newmarch, B., and Jackson, G. (1980). Lower
Extremity Bracing in Paraplegia - A Follow-up Study. Paraplegia. 18.
25-32.
Condie, D. and Lamb, J. (1993). Hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Biomechanical
Basis of Orthotic Management. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 168-189.
Edberg, E. (1967). Bracing for Patients with Traumatic Paraplegia. Physical
Therapy. 47. No. 9, 818-823.
Heizer, D. (1967). Long Leg Brace Design for Traumatic Paraplegia. Physical
Therapy. 47. No. 9, 824-826.
Heizer, D. (1967). Brace Design for Flaccid Paralysis. Physical Therapy.
47. No. 9, 816-818.
Jaeger, R. J., Yarkony, G. M., and Roth, E. J., (1989). Rehabilitation
Technology for Standing and Walking after Spinal Cord Injury. Am J Phys
Med Rehabil, 68, No. 3, 128-133.
Lehmann, J. F., DeLateur, B. J., Warren, C. G., Simons, B. C., and Guy, A.W.
(1969). Biomechanical Evaluation of Braces for Paraplegics. Arch Phys
Med Rehabil. 50, 179-188.
Lehmann, J. F. and Warren, C. (1976). Restraining Forces in Various Designs
of Knee Ankle Orthoses: Their Placement and Effect on the Anatomical
Knee Joint. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 57, 430-437.
Lehmann, J. F., DeLateur, B. J., Warren, C. G., Simons, B. C., and
Kirkpatrick, G. (1970). Biomechanical Evaluation of Axial Loading in
Ischial Weight-Bearing Braces of Various Designs. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil. 51, 331-337.
Lehmann, J. F., Warren, C. G., Hertling, D., McGee, M., Simons, B. C., and
Dralle, A. (1976). Craig-Scott Orthosis: A Biomechanical and
Functional Evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 57, 438-442.
Lehmann, J. F., DeLateur, B. J., Warren, C. G., Simons, B. C., and Guy, A.W.
(1970). Trends in Lower Extremity Bracing. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 51,
338-353.
Lippert, F. G. (1971). A long leg brace for comprehensive force measurement.
Acta Orthop. Scand. Supp., 138.
Lusskin, R. (1966). The Influence of Errors in Bracing Upon Deformity of the
Lower Extermity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 47, No. 8, 520-525.
Merkel, K. D., Miller, N. E., Westbrook, P.R., and Merritt, J.L. (1984).
Energy Expenditure of Paraplegic Patients Standing and Walking with Two
Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthoses. Arch Phys med Rehabil. 65. 121-124.
Rowley, D. I. and Edwards, J. (1987). Helping the paraplegic to walk. The
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 69-B, No. 2, 173-4.
Scott, B. A. (1971). Engineering Principles and Fabrication Techniques for
the Scott-Craig Long Leg Brace for Paraplegics. Orthotics and
Prosthetics. 25, 14-19.
Stallard, J. (1993). Knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Biomechanical Basis of
Orthotic Management. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 146-167.
Stallard, J., Major, R. E., and Patrick, J.H. (1989). A Review of the
Fundamental Design Problems of Providing Ambulation for Paraplegic
Patients. Paraplegia. 27. 70-75.
Strohm, B. R., Bray, J., and Colachis, S. C. (1963). The UCLA Functional Long
Leg Brace: Biomechanics and Fabrication - A Preliminary Report. J Am
Phys Ther Ass. 43, No. 10, 713-716.
Trappitt, A. E. and Berme, N., (1981). A Transducer for the Measurement of
Lower Limb Orthotic Loads. Engineering in Medicine, 10, 149-153.
Von Werssowetz, O. F. (1962). Special Review. Basic Principles of Lower
Extremity Bracing. Amer J Phys Med. 41, 156-186.

Sincerely,
Terrence E. George teg2@mhg.edu