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Herman J. Woltring
05-06-1991, 09:35 PM
Dear Biomch-L readers,

Following Ian Stokes' posting on the 3-D meeting in Montreal this summer, I
think that the items below from the AIMED list are quite interesting.

Hoping to see many of you in Canada, and happy with any suggestions from the
readership on standardization issues in 3-D movement analysis/simulation,

Herman J. Woltring, Eindhoven/NL
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Date: Mon, 6 May 91 13:34:40 CDT
From: serdar (Serdar Uckun)
Subject: virtual reality in medicine - summary of findings

Thanks to all those who responded to my recent query concerning
virtual reality applications in medicine. Here is a summary of my findings:

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* University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Dept of Radiation
Oncology): use of virtual simulations in radiotherapy planning.

For more info see Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1990 Oct;19(4):1059-65.
AU - Sherouse GW ; Bourland JD ; Reynolds K ; McMurry HL ; Mitchell TP
; Chaney EL
TI - Virtual simulation in the clinical setting: some practical
considerations.

--> From Susanne Humphrey

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* an application in orthodontics from Japan:

AU - Hikage K
TI - [Integrated orthodontic management system for virtual
three-dimensional computer graphic simulation and optical video
image database--supported system for diagnosis and treatment
planning] (in Japanese)
SO - Nippon Kyosei Shika Gakkai Zasshi 1987 Jun;46(2):248-69

--> From Susanne Humphrey

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* The University of Washington (Dept. of Biological Structures):
Digital Anatomist Program

The University of Washington Digital Anatomist program is creating a
large database of 3-D reconstructions of the human body. There is also a
Virtual Reality lab here, under the direction of Tom Furness. They are
very interested in applying our data to virtual reality, and I believe
(although I'm not sure) that we gave them some of our reconstructions. The
person there who would know is Suzanne Weghorst (weghorst@u.washington.edu).

--> From Jim Brinkley
--> Also from Chris Esposito

-----------

* The University of Washington Human Interface Technology Lab:

At the HIT Lab we have two ongoing projects relating virtual reality
technology to medicine. The first is the use of "inclusive" display and
interaction techniques for exploring biological structures. We see this
as a useful approach for medical education, surgical and procedural
planning, "real-time" surgical and procedural aids, consultation among
physicians and with patients, and eventually primary clinical radiology
reading.

So far we have been collaborating with groups in the U of W Biological
Structures department (the Digital Anatomist project which is building
an anatomy database from digitized 1-millimeter microtomed tissue slices)
and the Orthopaedics department (a digitized skeletal manipulation and
viewing system developed by John Sidles) with the modest goal of porting
their data into a virtual reality system and simply "flying" around and
through the structures. The next step will entail programming interactions
with the structures using more natural control devices such as the
dataglove, doing "virtual dissection", skeletal manipulation, etc.

We have also been discussing possibilities for pharmacological
simulation, for neurosurgical training, and for radiology database
navigation with other medical school researchers and corporate sponsors.

The second biomedical application we have been exploring is the use of
VR technology in rehabilitation medicine, specifically as a prosthetic
technology for physically and learning disabled people. Our plans for
our new VR operating system (the Virtual Environment Operating System,
or VEOS) will facilitate access by these users by incorporating the
notion of an arbitrary mapping of behavior transducers onto virtual
world actions in configuring the user's "Virtual Body". EMG signals
from the facial muscles, for instance, could be the control commands
for flying or grasping by a quadraplegic user. Multi-sensory VR "display"
technology also gives us the option of configuring information
presentation to the sensory and cognitive abilities of the user.
A visually impaired radiologist of the future may thus be able to
"read out" studies by deciphering a tactile and/or auditory presentation
of the images.

As business and research applications of VR are developed this approach
to the user interface will assure access to those functions (and to
gainful employment) by people who may currently be unemployable. And,
since we are all "differently abled" in various ways, developing a
tailoring methodology and alternative behavior transducers will be of
benefit to the general user population, as well.

--> From Suzanne Weghorst

-----------

* a Swan-Ganz catheter simulation (source unknown):

I recall seeing a simulation of a Swan-Ganz catheter placement that allowed
the user to inflate and deflate the balloon and advance the and retract the
catheter. It was extremely realistic, however, the "reality" that was being
simulated was mainly a catheter port and pressure tracing displays. Insofar
as the person placing the catheter becomes absorbed in this limited "world",
the program simulates that world, but I suspect you are looking for something
more elaborate. The above example qualifies in a qualitative sense, but not
in a quantitative sense.

--> From Jim Cimino

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* AutoDesk

Have you contacted AutoDesk in northern CALIFORNIA?
they were involved in some joint ventures with virtual reality,
and it is possible some medical applications were included in
the projects. try 415-331-4539.

--> From Bob Smith

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* Virtual Reality in Physical Rehabilitation:

I corresponded a couple of years ago with a Dr. Mervin Krueger
(whose address I unfortunately cant locate: I believe he is in
Maryland) about the possibility of applying AR in Physical
Rehabilitation. He had also pursued a similar idea before.
Unfortunately, neither he nor I could secure the necessary funding
for a pilot project. I think funding agencies are not quite ready
for this! I hope this helps.

--> From Gerhard Werner, MD

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* Disneyworld!

I would suggest the ride in Disneyworld entitled "Body Wars"

--> From Robert Byck

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* Greenleaf Medical Systems

The dataglove used in virtual reality has been licensed by Greenleaf
Medical Systems in Palo Alto, and is being used to automatically collect
information about range of hand motion possible in people with limited
upper extremity function. Greenleaf had a booth at SCAMC. It's not a
USE of virtual reality, but rather a use of the same tools.

--> From Bonnie Webber

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* Stanford University: simulation of the human hand

How does motion change with different disabilities? In
answering this question we will image a person's bones
and joints with an M.R.I machine and have him or her wear
a sensor-lined DataGlove. Based on the trajectory of motion
in the fingertips, as measured by the DataGlove, we will look
at the bones and their motion on the computer. We hope to
discover whether the change in motion is due to a change in
shape of the joints or a change in function of the muscle.
Several normal hands will be compared with one arthritic,
one quadraplegic, one traumatically nerve damaged and one
traumatically tendon damaged hand.

--> From Damon Schechter
--> Thanks to Todd Stock

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* Stanford University Virtual Space Interest Group:

The VIRTUAL SPACE INTEREST GROUP of STANFORD is a student run
organization to promote education, research, and development
with respect to virtual space technologies. We generally
define "virtual space" to be data structures that are not
limited to, but include, linear geometric dimensions. With
such data structures, we can model real world and imaginary
objects for design, analysis, or entertainment. Of substantial
interest to us are developments enabling the projection of
ourselves into such a data space for interaction with the
virtual objects or each other.