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Smith Clifford
12-13-1995, 03:06 AM
Dear Subscribers of BIOMCH-L,

Having read the recent thread regarding marker placement in
stereophotogrammetry systems, I was wondering if there has been any
recent research in the area that I am working in.

Let me introduce myself. I am a mechanical engineer working at a
chiropractic college. One of the projects I'm currently pursuing is in
developing a three-dimensional x-ray analysis technique of the spine for
chiropractors to use in their practice. In practice, chiropractors will
utilize a single x-ray machine to take views of the spine to do
two-dimensional analysis. I am trying to use these same views to reconstruct
three-dimensional point location and positional information of the
vertebrae, over say six months of chiropractic care.

The photogrammetry theory that I am using is the same as in
other fields, but obviously surface markers can not be placed on the
patient's vertebrae. So one resorts to trying to find anatomical
landmarks that can be used as identification points on the vertebrae.
The problem is in finding points which are sufficiently enough distinct to
find in different views. This as you can imagine is very difficult. There are
papers in the literature on this topic from the 70's and early 80's such as

Suh, C.H., "The Fundamentals of Computer Aided X-Ray Analysis of the
Spine," J. Biomechanics, 1974, Vol. 7, pp. 161-169.

Brown, R.H., et. al., "Spinal Analysis Using A Three-Dimensional Radiographic
Technique," J. Biomechanics, 1976, Vol. 9, pp. 355-365.

Hindmarsh, J., et. al., "Analysis of Changes in the Scoliotic Spine Using
a Three-Dimensional Radiographic Technique," J. Biomechanics, 1980, Vol. 13,
pp. 279-290.

but I haven't found anything recent (from the past 15 years or so).

I was wondering if anyone is still doing research in this area, or in an area
where a similar problem occurs, and how you are dealing with it.

Cliff Smith
Research Faculty

Life College
1269 Barclay Circle
Marietta, GA 30060

(770) 424-0554 x241

csmith@lifenet.life.edu