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Herman J. Woltring
05-13-1991, 04:12 AM
The ternary "Sport Research Review" issue for April/July 1991 from Nike, Inc.
(free subscriptions and binder on request from The Editor, NIKE Sport Research
Review, 1 Bowerman Drive, Beaverton, OR 97005-6453, USA) is a special issue
devoted to 3-D kinematics. It provides a survey of DLT-based approaches with
multiple cameras and then focuses on 2-D and 3-D rearfoot motion analysis in
running [17 references]. Under the subtitle "Future clinical applications",
the following is stated:

In the past it has been suggested that anatomically defined ankle and
subtalar joint motions could categorize risk groups of runners [Engsberg
& Andrews, Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 19(1987)3, 275-284]. 3-D foot kinematics
can be analysed by examing the component of each motion during contact.
For example, a great deal of abduction and little eversion from midstance
to maximal pronation contributes to internal rotation of the lower leg
with respect to the calcaneus, a possible cause of injury [ibid.]. Using
a 3-D analysis, runners can be placed in categories according to movement
characteristics. Once risk categories are established, preventive measures
can be taken. With regard to footwear, designers can incorporate features
which control undesired motion.

Indeed, footwear design has been a largely handicraft type of trade; only
recently, findings from the biomechanics field are beginning to be used in
this area. In The Netherlands, for example, Dr A. (Ton) de Lange at the TNO
Centre for Leather and Shoe Research (P.O.B. 135, NL - 5140 AC WAALWIJK, Tel.
+31.4160.33255, Fax +31.4160.41735, LANGE@HDETNO51.BITNET) recently started a
biomechanics laboratory in which such studies are contemplated.

Herman J. Woltring, Eindhoven/NL