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Ozan Akkus
03-13-1996, 06:19 PM
Dear Netters,

Prof Akkas asked me to distribute the following message to the members of
this listserv. Please contact him through the following email address if



Ozan Akkus
================================================== =====================
March 13, 1996

Dear Colleagues,

The following paper of mine has appeared in a Taiwanese journal (in
English). Since it is likely that the availability of the journal around the
world is limited, I have decided to "advertise" the paper through this network.
Please send me your address if you want me to send a copy of the paper to you.


Prof Nuri Akkas
Dept of Engineering Sciences
Middle East Technical University
06531 Ankara, Turkey
Phone: 90-312-210 2378
Fax : 90-312-210 1269
Email: nakkas@rorqual.cc.metu.edu.tr

Paper Title: "A Planar Dynamic Anatomical Model of the Human Lower Limb"
Vol. 7, No. 4, August 1995, pp. 365 - 378.
KEYWORDS: biomechanics, biodynamics, mathematical modelling, numerical
solution, human lower limb, human knee joint, ligament force, muscle
activation, hip flexion, knee flexion, femoral and tibial contact point
location, contact force.
REFERENCES GIVEN: Hefzy, Grood, Hatze, Audu, Davy, Hemami, Engin,
Moeinzadeh, Hoy, Zajac, Gordon, Shapiro and others.

ABSTRACT: A two-dimensional anatomically-based dynamic model of the human
lower limb, consisting of the thigh and shank segments, is introduced.
The hip joint is modelled as a hinge whereas a previously reported
anatomical model (Moeinzadeh, Engin, Akkas, J Biomech, 1983, V.16,
253-264) is incorporated for the knee joint. In addition to the knee
joint ligaments, the model includes the effects of five significant muscle
groups involved in the motion of the lower extremity. A previously
reported muscle model (Audu, Davy, J Biomech Engng, 1985, V. 107,
147-157), which accepts normalized stimulus rate as input, is used for
actuating the muscles. The model stimulates the motions of the lower limb
segments and calculates the accompanying structural forces in the knee
joint under the action of muscles, gravity and externally applied forcing
on the lower leg. The model is used to study the following two
scenarios: First, an unexpected forcing of small duration is applied on
the shank and the response is obtained assuming there exists no feedback
at the intrinsic muscle level. When the thigh is assumed to be fixed, the
ligament and the contact forces developed in the knee joint are much
greater than the corresponding values when the trunk is considered fixed;
which indicates that injury is more probable upon impulsive load on the
lower leg if the motion of the thigh is restrained. Secondly, swinging
phase of a kicking type of learned activity is simulated. When compared
with the results of a compatible phenomenological model for the same
muscle activation program, the present anatomical model yields similar
motion patterns but considerable deviations in motion amplitudes.