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Mark D. Ricard
04-08-1996, 08:58 AM
Hi Biomech-Lers:

Below is a summary of responses from our request of literature
pertaining to EMG of the abdominal muscles.

Ballantyne,Bryon T; O Hare,Sally J; Paschall,Jodie L (1993):
Electromyographic activity of selected shoulder muscles in commonly
used therapeutic exercises. Physical Therapy 73 (10), 668-682.

Booth,Denise; Chennells,Mary; Jones,Deirdre; Price,Ann (1980):
Assessment of abdominal muscle exercises in non-pregnant, pregnant,
and postpartum subjects, using electromyography. Australian Journal of
Physiotherapy 26 No. 5, 177-197.

Cresswell,AG (1993): Response of intra-abdominal pressure and
abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man.
European Journal of Applied Physiology 66, 315-320.

Cresswell,AG; Thorstensson,A (1994): Changes in intra-abdominal
pressure, trunk muscle activation and force during isokinetic lifting and
lowering. European Journal of Applied Physiology 68, 315-321.

Flint,M Marilyn (1965): Abdominal muscle involvement during the
performance of various forms of sit-up exercise. American Journal of
Physical Medicine 44 No. 5, 225-234.

Garcia,Robelyn Annette (1992): A comparative analysis of the effects of
two abdominal exercise programs on abdominal strength and
endurance. M.S. Thesis, Central Missouri State University. 54 p.

Gilleard,Wendy L; Brown,J Mark M (1994): An electomyographic
validation of an abadominal muscle test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 75,
1002-1007.

Godfrey,Katherine; Kindig,Louise,E; Windell,E Jane (1977):
Electromyographic study of duration of muscle activity in sit-up
variations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 58, 132-135.

Guimaraes,Antonio Carlos S; Vaz,Marco Aurelio; De Campos,Maria Ines
A; Marantes,Ricardo (1991): The contribution of the rectus abdominus
and rectus femoris in twelve selected abdominal exercises. J Sports
Med Phys Fitness 31, 222-230.

Gutfeld,Greg (1991): build your back through your belly. Prevention 43
No. 7, 58 (7).

Hall,Susan; Lee,Jurip; Wood,Terry W (1990): Evaluation of selected
sit-up variations for the individual with low back pain. J appl sport sci
res 4 No. 1, 42-46.

Hedrick,A (1995): Abdominal training at the olympic training center takes
on a new twist. Strength and conditioning 17 No. 5, 58-59.

Hittner,Patricia (1995): My back is killing me. Better Homes and Gardens
73 No. 6, 52(4).

Lee,Jurip (1988): An electromyographic comparison of eight sit-up
variations. MS Thesis, Oregon State University.

Lipetz,Stanley; Gutin,Bernard (1970): An electomyographic study of four
abdominal exercises. Medicine and Science in Sports 2 No. 1, 35-38.

Miller,M; Medeiros,JM (1987): Recruitment of internal oblique and
transverse abdominis muscles during the eccentric phase of the curl-up
exercise. Physical Therapy 67, 1213-1217.

Noble,Larry (1981): Effects of various types of situps on iEMG of the
abdominal musculature. Journal of Human Movement Studies 7, 124-130.

Norris,CM (1993): Abdominal muscle training in sport. British Journal of
Sports Medicine 27 No. 1, 19-27.

Piering,Andrew W; Janowski,Alex P; Moore,Martin T; Snyder,Ann c;
Wehrenberg,William B (1993): Electromyographic analysis of four
popular abdominal exercises. Journal of Athletic Training 28 No. 2,
120-126.

Rasch,Philip J; Burke,Roger K (1978): Kinesiology and applied anatomy.
6th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 242-243 pages.

Ricci,B; Marchetti,M; Figura,F (1981): Biomechanics of sit-up exercises.
Med Sci Sport Exerc 13 No.1, 54-59.

Richardson,Carolyn; Toppenberg,Rowena; Juil,Gwendolen (1990): An
initial evaluation of eight abdominal exercises for their stability to provide
stalilisation for the lumbar spine. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 36,
6-11.

Ross,M (1993): Effect of a lumbar support device on muscle activity
during abdominal exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research 7 No. 4, 219-223.

Ross,M; Hall,SJ; Breit,N; Britten,S (1993): Effect of a lumbar support
device on muscle activity during abdominal exercise. Journal of Strength
and Conditioning Research 7 No. 4, 29-223.

Shirado,Osamu; Ito,Toshikazu; Kaneda,Kiyoshi; Strax,Thomas E (1995):
Electromyographic analysis of four techniques for isometric trunk
muscle exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 76, 225-229.

Silvermetz,MA (1990): pathokinesiology of supine double leg lifts as an
abdominal strengthener and suggested alternative exercises. Journal of
Athletic Training 25 No. 1, 17-18.

Stanhope,Steven J (1985): Interactions between the anterior abdominal
wall musculature. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland. 191 p.

Therapist group (1984): New Eagle variable resistance abdominal
machine. Journal of the Canadian Athletic Therapists Association
(Oakville, Ont.) 11 No. 2, 22.

Thomas,TR; Ridder,MB (1989): Resistance exericise program effects on
abdominal function and physique. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 29 No. 1,
45-48.

Vander,LB; Franklin,BA; Wrisley,D; Rubenfire,M (1986): Acute
cardiovascular responses to nautilus exercise in cardiac patients:
implications for exercise training. Annals of Sports Medicine 2 No.4,
165-169.

Wallstrom,Timothy James (1993): The effects of three testing and training
modalities on exercise independence and sit-ups performance among
children with severe mental retardation. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio
State University. 245 p.

Walters,C Etta; Partridge,Miriam J (1957): Electromyographic study of the
differential action of the abdominal muscles during exercise. American
Journal of Physical Medicine 36, 259-268.

Wickenden,S; Bates,S; Maxwell,L (1992): An electromyographic
evaluation of upper and lower rectus abdominus during various forms of
abdominal exercises. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy August
1992, 17-21.


Thank you,

Mark Ricard
Physical Education Dept. Phone: (801) 378-8958
221 Richards Building Fax: (801) 378-8389
Brigham Young University email: RICARDMD@PEGATE.BYU.EDU
Provo, UT 84602