View Full Version : Summary of tendon stiffness

Tibor Hortobagyi
06-06-1996, 10:54 PM
Below is a summary of some of the responses to my inquiry about human
tendon stiffness. Thank you all for responding. Tibor.

From: tzipple@uomhs.edu
A good source of biomechanics information on soft
tissues comes the book:
Injury and Repair of the Musculoskeletal Soft
Tissues, from the AAOS symposium, edited by
Savio L.-Y. Woo and Joseph A. Buckwalter,
published by the AAOS (Park Ridge, IL), 1988
Chapter 1 has material on tendon stiffness
Two other sources are:
1. Orthopaedic Biomaterials in Research and
Practice, by Jonathan Black, Churchill Livingston
1988. Chapter 5
2. Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal
System, by Margareta Nordin and Victor Frankel,
Lea and Febiger, 2nd ed., 1989, Chapter 3
If you desire more expertise, my former graduate
school professor, Roger C. Haut, PhD., at Michigan
State University, Biomechanics Department in the
College of Osteopathic Medicine, may be of help. I'm
sorry that I don't have the number for you.
J. Tim Zipple PT, MS, OMPT, OCS
Instructor: University of Osteopathic
Medicine and Health Sciences,
Des Moines, IA 50312


Proske, U., & Morgan, D.L. (1987). Tendon stiffness: Methods of
measurement and significance for the control of movement. A review.
Journal of Biomechanics, 20 (1), 75-82.
Woo, S.L.-Y. (1982). Mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments II.
The relationships of immobilization and exercise on tissue remodeling,
Biorheology, 19, 397-408.
Woo, S.L.-Y. (1982). Mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments I.
Quasi-static and non-linear properties. Biorheology, 19, 385-396.
Zajac, F.E. (1989). Muscle and tendon: Properties, models, scaling, and
application to biomechanics and motor control. CRC Critical Reviews in
Biomedical Engineering, 17 (4), 359-411.

Peter Vint
Arizona State University

From: P Zioupos

measured by Xiao-Tong Wang and Robert F Ker in the Univ. of Leeds, UK.
1) 'toe' region at about 20-30 MPa, then linear.
2) Young's modulus in the linear region (following the 'toe' region) on
average (1.5+/-0.25) GPa
3) Ultimate tensile stress 100-150 MPa
4) Ultimate tensile strain 8-10 %
1) creep rupture at stress >10 MPa
2) initial rate of creep and time to rupture are well correlated
3) time to rupture decreases with increasing temerature
4) time to rupture decreases with specimen length to about 80 mm
5) fatigue damage is distinct to that occurring in creep and the two are
usually superimposed in life.
all the best
Dr Peter Zioupos
Dept Biology, York, UK

From: hayashi@mother.me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp (Kozaburo Hayashi)

The mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments of animals and human are
included in a recent book entitled "Data Book on Mechanical Properties of
Living Cells, Tissues, and Organs" which was edited by H. Abe, K. Hayashi,
and M. Sato and published by Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, 1996. All data are
presented in graphs and tables (mostly in one type of data per page)
arranged in an easily accessible manner, along with details of the origin
of the materials and the experimental method. I believe this book is very
useful for you.

Kozaburo Hayashi

Tibor Hortobagyi
251 Sports Medicine Bldg.
East Carolina University
Greenville, NC 27858
Phone (919) 328-4564
FAX (919) 328-4537
Email: Hphortob at ecuvm1