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R J Eveleigh
07-02-1996, 01:38 AM
Thankyou to everyone who replied. I'm certainly not short of papers to
refer to now! Here's a summary of the replies I received.


ORIGINAL POSTING

Dear list,

I am trying to construct a rig that simulates the forces acting on the
femur when it is flexed during gait.

Although muscle forces acting on the femur (those of the abductors
and tensor fascia latae) during single legged stance are
well documented, I am having difficulty finding any such information
regarding muscle forces during femoral flexion.

If anyone has any ideas or information regarding which muscles are active
(I believe the abductors, tensor fascia latae and perhaps the vasti
muscles) at this stage and with what magnitude/direction they act on the
femur, I would greatly appreciate the help.

I will post a summary of results if I receive a good response.

Thanks in advance,

Rebecca Eveleigh

Postgraduate research student
School of Mechanical Engineering
University of Bath
Bath
UK

E-mail: enprje@bath .ac.uk
Tel: (01225) 826465
Fax: (01225) 826928

SUMMARY OF REPLIES


From=20A.Hart@tees.ac.uk Tue Jul 2 16:07:08 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 96 13:07:53 BST
From: Andrew Hart
To: .ac.uk@ayton.tees.ac.uk, enprje@bath.ac.uk
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion

Hi,
The best person that I know of in this area is Dr. Julian Minns at Dryburn =
Hosiptal, Durham. If he does not know the answer he may be able to tell you=
wher to find it. He can be contacted on 0191 333 2220. He may be out so le=
ave a message on his=20
answer phone.

Good Luck,

Andrew Hart.
University of Teesside.
U.K.




From=20toutoung@ermine.ox.ac.uk Tue Jul 2 16:07:15 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 13:31:55 +0100 (BST)
From: Danielle Toutoungi
To: R J Eveleigh
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion

What you need is a=20
lower-limb model. And we've got one.
They (there's either a 2D or a 3D=20
version) can tell you the directions of the muscle forces during any=20
activity. Then the analysis we do on the gait-lab data gives us estimates
of muscle force. We have done quite a lot of work on gait (well, not me
personally!), so we should be able to help. The problem is that the=20
forces and directions change a lot during the walking cycle snd I suspect=
=20
it would be difficult to simulate. But you could maybe work out some kind
of average.
Anyway, the person who really knows about this is Tung-Wu Lu.He may reply
to you himself, but
if not his email is twlu@vax.ox.ac.uk. He's in a meeting at the mo, but=20
when he's free I'll have a word with him and see what he says.=20
Just to get it clear: you want to know the magnitudes and lines of action=
=20
of the muscles acting on the femur during the swing phase of gait, right?

Danielle.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
*** MY EMAIL ADDRESS HAS CHANGED ***
FROM toutoung@sable.ox.ac.uk TO toutoung@ermine.ox.ac.uk
(but you can still use the one below, which is best)

Danielle Toutoungi, D.Phil. Research Student,
Oxford Orthopaedic Engineering Centre, University of Oxford.
tel: ++ (0)1865 227684 =20
fax: ++ (0)1865 742348=09 email: danielle.toutoungi@eng.ox.ac.uk

"Time flies like an arrow, Fruit flies like a banana" - Anon.
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$


From=20J.Middleton@swansea.ac.uk Tue Jul 2 16:07:48 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 13:51:27 GMT0BST
From: J MIDDLETON
To: enprje@bath.ac.uk
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion

Dear Rebbeca,

I believe that Dr Clive Lee in Mech Eng. at Exeter Univ has a rig=20
that may help you. I don't have his E-mail however try giving him a=20
ring.

John Middleton
---------------------------------------------
John Middleton Dept of Civil Eng/Biomedical Eng
Engineering Building, University of Wales Swansea
Swansea, UK. Tel. 01792(295514) Fax.(295676)


From=20maitland@acs.ucalgary.ca Tue Jul 2 16:07:22 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 96 6:37:24 MDT
From: Murray Ernest Maitland
To: enprje@bath.ac.uk
Subject: Re: femoral flexion

Dear Rebecca:
When I think of walking, I tend to think of joint flexion
extension rather than bone flexion. It sounds to me that your
question could be paraphrased "forces acting on the femur during
hip flexion when the subject is walking": unless you mean bending
moments or something similar. If you are really looking a forces
acting on the femur you may need to include all muscles attached
to the femur but this depends on your question.=20

Murray


From=20duda@sirius.medizin.uni-ulm.de Tue Jul 2 16:07:33 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 14:58:37 +0200
From: Georg Duda
To: R J Eveleigh
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion

Dear Rebecca,

I recently finished my thesis "Influence of Muscle Forces
on the Internal Loads in the Femur during Gait" which may be=20
of interest to you.
It includes an overview of the most common solution sets
of muscle force calculations for gait, although the main topic is
the load state of the femur.

You can check out the thesis abstract at
http://lyra.medizin.uni-ulm.de/ufb.html/staff/duda/duda under=20
publications as well as other transaction abstracts to the same
topic.

If the work is within your scope you may order a copy from
the publisher (Shaker Verlag Aachen, ISBN 3-8265-1474-2) or, if
there are still enough copies, directly from me.

I hope, that helps with your question,

Georg
--=20
__________________________________________________ ______________________

Dr. Ing. Georg Duda
Abteilung Unfallchirurgische Forschung & Biomechanik
Universitaet Ulm - Klinikum
Helmholtzstrasse 14
89 081 ULM

tel: +49.731.502.3494
fax: +49.731.502.3498
email: duda@sirius.medizin.uni-ulm.de
www: http://lyra.medizin.uni-ulm.de/ufb.html/staff/duda/duda
__________________________________________________ ______________________


From=20toutoung@ermine.ox.ac.uk Tue Jul 2 16:07:41 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 14:18:41 +0100 (BST)
From: Danielle Toutoungi
To: R J Eveleigh
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion


I've been talking to Tung-Wu, and in fact we may not be able to help as
much as I thought. We've got the data from the 2D model, but that only
includes rectus femoris, hamstrings, gluteus maximus and illiopsoas at
the hip. The 3D model includes lots more muscles, but we get hundreds of
possible solution combinations (the way we try to get round the=20
indeterminacy is to select all the possible determinate combinations of=20
muscles in turn, solve the equations, find which ones give sensible=20
answers and then compare them with emg data - it works well in 2D, but
at the moment, in 3D, during the swing phase there are often over a=20
hundred solutions per frame, so it's rather difficult to choose which
is the most likely!) so it's not really at a stage where we can give you
any useful answers.=20
But Tung-Wu made the following points:
* if you really want a realistic load environment, you do need to take=20
into account all the muscles, including the biarticular muscles which span
the femur. Apparently this makes a big difference to the loads in the=20
bone.
* but, that's probably more important during stance, when all the forces
are much bigger. During swing phase the muscle and contact forces will
be much lower, obviously.=20

Some references that may be useful are:
* White, S.C., Yack, H.J. and Winter, D.A. (1989) A 3D musculo-skeletal=20
model for gait-analysis. Anatomical variability estimates. J Biomech. 22,=
=20
885-893.
(I think this gives muscle insertion and origin coordinates; you may have
to scale the values to suit your particular "subject")

*Cristofolini, L. et al. (1995) Influence of the thigh muscles on the=20
axial strains in a proximal femur during early stance in gait. J Biomech.=
=20
28(5), 617-624.
(You probably already have this one, and it's only for stance phase, but
you never know...)

*Cheal, E.J. et al. (1992) Role of loads and prostheses material=20
properties on the mechanics of the proximal femur..., J Orth Res, 10,=20
405-422.
(Apparently this may have swing phase data)

*Brand, R.A. et al (1994) Comparison of hip force calculations and=20
measurements in the same patient. J Arthroplasty 9, 45-51.

*Crowninshield, R.D. et al (1978) A biomechanical investigation of the=20
human hip. J Biomech. 11, 75-85.

Sorry I can't be as much use as I thought. If you want the 2D model
estimates, try contacting Richie (gillhs@vax.ox.ac.uk) because he's
looked at swing phase. Tung-Wu's more into stance phase, but he says
do email him if you want any more info.=20

Danielle.


$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
*** MY EMAIL ADDRESS HAS CHANGED ***
FROM toutoung@sable.ox.ac.uk TO toutoung@ermine.ox.ac.uk
(but you can still use the one below, which is best)

Danielle Toutoungi, D.Phil. Research Student,
Oxford Orthopaedic Engineering Centre, University of Oxford.
tel: ++ (0)1865 227684 =20
fax: ++ (0)1865 742348=09 email: danielle.toutoungi@eng.ox.ac.uk

"Time flies like an arrow, Fruit flies like a banana" - Anon.
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$


From=20sundars@ces.clemson.edu Tue Jul 2 16:07:55 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 10:04:27 -0400
From: sundars@ces.clemson.edu
To: enprje@bath.ac.uk
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion


Hello Rebecca

There's a dissertation that has looked at quantifying the muscle forces=20
during gait. I've used the data published there in my work. The citation is=
:

A.G. Patriarco, "Prediction of Individual Muscle Forces During Human Moveme=
nt,"
PhD Dissertation, MIT, 1992.


Also, check out the paper by E.J. Cheal, M. Spector, and W.C. Hayes, "Role =
of
Loads and Prosthesis Material Properties on the Mechanics of the Proximal F=
emur
After Total Hip Arthroplasty," J. of Orthopaedic Research, 10, 405-422, 199=
2.

Besto
Sundar Srinivasan.


From=20luca@tecno.ior.it Tue Jul 2 16:08:06 1996
Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 18:37:39 +0100
From: Luca Cristofolini
To: R J Eveleigh
Subject: Re: muscle forces during femoral flexion

>Dear list,
>
>I am trying to construct a rig that simulates the forces acting on the
>femur when it is flexed during gait.
>
>Although muscle forces acting on the femur (those of the abductors
>and tensor fascia latae) during single legged stance are
>well documented, I am having difficulty finding any such information
>regarding muscle forces during femoral flexion.
>
>If anyone has any ideas or information regarding which muscles are active
>(I believe the abductors, tensor fascia latae and perhaps the vasti
>muscles) at this stage and with what magnitude/direction they act on the
>femur, I would greatly appreciate the help.
>
>I will post a summary of results if I receive a good response.
>
>Thanks in advance,
>
>Rebecca Eveleigh
>
>Postgraduate research student
>School of Mechanical Engineering
>University of Bath
>Bath
>UK
>
>E-mail: enprje@bath .ac.uk
>Tel: (01225) 826465
>Fax: (01225) 826928


Dear Rebecca,

you might like to have a look at the following papers:
Cristofolini L., Viceconti M., Toni A., Giunti A.,1995,Influence of thigh
muscles on the axial strains in a proximal femur during early stance in
gait.,J. Biomechanics 28(5): 617-624
Davy D.T., Kotzar G.M., Brown R.H., Heiple K.G., Goldberg V.M., Heiple
K.G. JR., Berilla J., Burstein A.,1988, Telemetric force measurements
across the hip after total arthroplasty,J. Bone Jt. Surg. 70-A: 45-50
Paul J.P., MC Grouther D.A.,1975,Forces trasmitted at the hip and knee
joint of normal and disabled persons during a range of activities,Acta
Orthop. Belg. 41:78- 88
Finlay J.B., Rorabeck C.H., Bourne R.B., Tew W.M.,1989,In Vitro analysis
of proximal femoral strains using PCA femoral implants and a hip-abductor
muscle simulator,J. Arthroplasty 4: 335-349
Crowninshield R.D., Johnston R.C., Andrews J.G., Brand R.A.,1978,A
biomechanical investigation of the human hip,J. Biomechanics 11: 75-85
Hoy M.G., Zajac F.E., Gordon M.E.,1990,A muscoloskeletal model of the human
lower extremity: the effect of muscle, tendon, and moment arm on the
moment-angle relationship of muscolotendon actuators at the hip, knee and
ankle,J. Biomechanics 23: 157-169
Johnston R.C., Brand R.A., Crowninshield R.D.,1979,Reconstruction of the
hip,J. Bone Jt. Surg. 61-A: 639-652
Kotzar G.M., Davy D.T., Goldberg V.M., Heiple K.G., Berilla J., Heiple K.G.
JR., Brown R.H., Burstein A.H.,1991,Telemeterized in vivo hip joint force
data: a report on two patients after total hip surgery,J. Orthop. Res. 9:
621-633
Van Krieken F.M., Den Heeten G.J., Pedersen D.R., Brand R.A., Crowninshield
R.D.,1985,Prediction of muscle and joint loads after segmental femur
replacement for osteosarcoma,Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 198: 273-283
Davy T.D., Audu M.L.,1987,A dynamic optimization technique for predicting
muscle forces in the swing phase of gait,J. Biomechanics 20 (2): 187-201
Patriarco A.G., Mann R.W., Simon S.R., Mansour J.M.,1981,An evaluation of
the approaches of optimization models in the prediction of muscle forces
during human gait,J. Biomechanics 14 (8): 513-525
Dostal W.F., Andrews J.G.,1981,A three-dimensional model of hip
musculature,J. Biomechanics 14: 803-812
Cheal E.J., Spector M., Hayes W.C.,1992,Role of loads and prostheses
material properties on the mechanics of the proximal femur after total hip
arthroplasty,J. Orthop. Res. 10: 405-422
Rohrle H., Scholten R., Sigolotto C., Sollbach W., Kellner H.,1984,Joint
forces in the human pelvis-leg skeleton during walking,J. Biomechanics 17:
409-424
Glitsch U.,1993,Comparison of different optimization approaches for the
evaluation of internal loads of the lower limb,XIV I.S.B. Congress Book of
Abstracts- Paris: 492-493
Lengsfeld A., Stammberger U., Reeh S., Franke R.P.,1993,In vitro
measurement of lower extremity muscle coordinates,XIV I.S.B. Congress Book
of Abstracts- Paris: 780-781
Lamontagne M., N=E9meth G., Wretenberg P.,1993,A new approach to validate a
musculo-skeletal human knee joint model,XIV I.S.B. Congress Book of
Abstracts- Paris:752-753
Froeling M., Krieg M., Pussel V., Ruder H.,1993,Optimization of the
locomotor system- A universal biomechanical approach,XIV I.S.B. Congress
Book of Abstracts- Paris: 428-429
Jacob H.A.C., Huggler A.H., Ruttimann B.,1982,In-vivo investigation on the
mechanical function of the tractus iliotibialis=0BChapter in: Biomechanics =
-
Principles and applications,Huiskes R., van Campen D.H., de Wijn J.R. eds.,
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers:161-167
Bergmann G., Graichen F., Rohlmann A.,1993,Hip joint loading during walking
and running, measured in two patients,J. Biomechanics 26: 969-990
Apkarian J;, Naumann S., Cairns B.,1989,A three-dimensional kinematic and
dinamic model of the lower limb,J. Biomechanics 22: 143-155
Gdoutos E.E., Raftopoulos D.D., Baril J.D.,1982,A critical review of the
biomechanical stress analysis of the human femur,Biomaterials 3:2-8
Duda G.N., Brand D., Schneider E.,1994,Influence of muscle forces on
femoral loadi,Abstracts 2nd World Congress of Biomechanics- Amsterdam
Blankervoort L., Koolos J.G.M. eds. vol. 2: 337
Colgan D., Trench P., Slemon D., McTague D., Finlay J.B., O'Donnel P.,
Little E.G.,1994,A review of joint and muscle load simulation relevant to
in-vitro stress analysis of the hip,Strain 30(2): 47-61
Vasavada A.N., Delp S.L., Maloney W.J., Schurman D.J., Zajac
F.E.,1994,Compensating for changes in muscle length in total hip
arthroplasty,Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 302: 121-133
Delp S.L., Maloney W.,1993,Effects of hip center location on the
moment-generating capacity of the muscles,J. Biomechanics 26: 485-499
Collins J.J.,1994,The redundant nature of locomotor optimization laws,J.
Biomechanics 28: 251-267
Munting E., Verhelpen M.,1993,Mechanical simulator for the upper femur,Acta
Orthop. Belg. 59: 123-129
Bergmann G., Kniggendorf H., Graichen F., Rohlmann A.,1995,Influence of
shoes and heel strike on the loading of the hip joint,J. Biomechanics 28:
817-827
Robinson R.P., Bohne W.H., Burstein A.H.,1982,Hip joint forces in sitting
positions,28th Annual Meeting, Orthopaedic Research Society Book of
Abstracts- New Orleans, Louisiana: 274
Fitzsimmons A.M., Nicol A.C., Lane J., Kelly I.G.,1995,Hip joint loading
during activities of daily living,XV ISB Congress Book of Abstracts -
Jyv=E4skyl=E4, Finland: 278-279
Bergmann G., Siraky J., Rohlmann A., Koelbel R.,1984,A comparison of hip
joint forces in sheep, dog and man,J. Biomechanics 17: 907-921
Taylor M.E., Tanner K.E., Freeman M.A.R., Yettram A.L.,1996,Stress and
strain distribution within the intact femur: compression or bending?,Med.
Eng. Phys. 18: 122-131
Tummer S.T., Wang Xishi, Akkas N.,1995,A planar dynamic anatomical model of
the human lower limb,Biomed. Eng. Appl. Basis Comm. 7(4): 365-378
Shelley F.J., Anderson D.D., Kolar M.J., Miller M.C., Rubash
H.E.,1996,Physical modelling of hip joint forces in stair climbing,Proc.
Instn. Mech Engrs. Part H: J. Engineering in Medicine 210: 65-68

Most of works actually focus on gait, but you will also find some info
about stair climbing and similar activities. Hope this helps. Best wishes.

Luca Cristofolini

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Luca Cristofolini
Laboratorio di Tecnologia dei Materiali tel. 39-(0)51-6366864
Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli fax. 39-(0)51-6366863
Via di Barbiano 1/10 E-mail:luca@tecno.ior.it
40136 Bologna, Italy
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Experience is the name we give to our errors.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -



From=20shar.gabison@utoronto.ca Tue Jul 2 16:09:02 1996
Date: Sun, 30 Jun 1996 10:55:28 -0400
From: Sharon Gabison
To: enprje@bath.ac.uk
Subject: Hip flexor moments

Hi Rebecca,

I am a graduate student at the University of Toronto looking at the strengt=
h
of the hip abductors in patients with OA of the hip.=20

In response to your request, I feel that both the rectus femoris, and
iliopsoas muscles are involved in the generation of hip flexor moments. I
believe they act in the pure sagittal plane.=20

I have one small request from you. You mentioned that the hip abductor
muscle forces are well documented in single leg stance during gait. I have
looked at Winter's data, is this what you are referring to? I would be eage=
r
to be directed to other literature which I may have missed.

Looking forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,

Sharon Gabison
M.Sc. Candidate, B.Sc.P.T., B.Sc.
University of Toronto
Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science=20