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C. Widule
07-12-1996, 02:11 AM
Dear BIOMCH-L Subscriber:

Many thanks to those who responded to our original posting concerning Biomechanics and
Multimedia. We hope this posting will continue to promote related discussion. For
example, what is the effect of CAI experiences on acquisition of biomechanical concepts?
Or, what design elements or multimedia components appear to have a greater effect on
concept development? Please post your questions for our collective consideration.

Below is a copy of our original posting followed by all of the responses.

-----------Original message----------------------------

Current trends in communications technology offer some exciting new approaches to the
development of computer assisted biomechanical instructional materials. At lease 10
years ago, the research evidence was fairly clear in establishing the efficacy of
computer assisted instruction when compared to traditional teaching methods. In an
attempt to move beyond these comparison studies, we are looking for research which
provides evidence on how best to construct biomechanical related multimedia and
hypermedia experiences to achieve maximum learning for students who bring their own
unique set of past experiences, abilities, and cognitive learning styles. We are looking
for research evidence which relates specific design principles to learning outcomes.

There appears to be a void in the published research related to the design of
biomechanical related multimedia and hypermedia computer assisted instructional
materials. We would be interested in any help anyone might be able to provide to either
locate this literature, if it exists, or to locate individuals who are engaged in this
research.


Carol J. Widule, Professor Jay Moon, PhD graduate student
e-mail: cwidule@purdue.edu e-mail: jumoon@purdue.edu
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From:
"Shane Preston"

Dear Carol,

In response to your posting on Biomch-l I suggest you try to contact
Dr. Chris Kirtley at Curtin University in Western Australia. He is
quite active in the development of multimedia tools for instruction
and teaching.

His details are:

Dr. Chris Kirtley MB ChB, PhD c.kirtley@info.curtin.edu.au
Curtin University of Technology,
GPO Box U1987,
Perth 6001, Tel +61 9 351 3649
Western Australia. Fax +61 9 351 3636

Hope this helps,

Shane Preston

Shane Preston
School of Engineering
University of Ballarat

Telephone : 61 053 279111
Fax : 61 053 279137
Email : spreston@fs3.ballarat.edu.au
Mail : PO Box 663 Ballarat Vic. 3353.
WWW : http://www.ballarat.edu.au/student/spreston/shane01.htm

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From:
Richard Smith

If you do find some sources for this information we would be very interested
too. Would you consider posting a summary to the list?

Regards,

Richard
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+ Richard Smith e-mail: Richard.Smith@cchs.su.EDU.AU +
+ Head, Biomechanics Division, +
+ Faculty of Health Sciences, ,-_|\ +
+ The University of Sydney voice: +61 2 646 6462 / \ +
+ East Street, Lidcombe, NSW 2141 fax: +61 2 646 6520 \_,-._* +
+ AUSTRALIA v +
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From:
"bwilson"

Hi Carol

There is quite a lot of development of CAL (incorporating multimedia)in
biomechanics which can be located via Australasian Society of Biomechanics.
See for example
"http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/physio/pt/staff/kirtley/cga/"
(Chris Kirtley would be a good contact for Australian Biomech CAL
developers).
I have had a two students complete Masters theses in this area. The theses
have reasonable lit reviews including essential and desirable
characteristics of CAL packages. The students still work in this area
developing and marketing CAL packages.

regards
Barry Wilson
************************************************** **********************
* *
* Barry D. Wilson, Ph. D. Phone: 64 (03) 479 8987 *
* School of Physical Education Fax: 64 (03) 479 8309 *
* University of Otago Email: bwilson@pooka.otago.ac.nz *
* Dunedin *
* New Zealand *
* *
************************************************** **********************

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From:
ikirtley@info.curtin.edu.au (Chris Kirtley)

I have done quite a bit in this area lately. I developed a package called
Motion Toolbox which collects video directly from a camera into the SVHS
port of an Apple Mac, and then allows the student to digitise it using a
very simple graphical user interface. Ground reaction forces are input from
a file (usually a floppy disk from whatever A-D acquisition you have. The
program then filters the data, calculates all angles, velocities,
acclerations, centres of pressure and does inverse dynamics at the press of
a button.

There is on-line help about most of the concepts used, and a sizeable
database of motions to analyse. It even includes a QuickTime Virtual
Reality trip round a gait lab!

You can see some examples on my home page (I made QT movies of the program
in operation), and many of the cases in the database have been featured on
my Clinical Gait Analysis web-site at

http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/physio/pt/staff/kirtley/cga

My colleague here, Cameron Kippen is doing his Masters thesis on the
development and use of Motion Toolbox in teaching here, and I have asked
him to contact you. This semester my third year physical therapy class
recorded and analysed all their own gaits with the package (a total of 80
students!), and it formed the basis for a 24 hour series of laboratories
for the 2nd year podiatry students covering all aspects of clinical
biomechanics. They then produced electronic essays incorporating screen
dumps from Motion Toolbox.

I agree with you - interactive multimedia is simple made for biomechanics!

Chris

__________________________________________________ __________________
Dr. Chris Kirtley MB ChB, PhD c.kirtley@info.curtin.edu.au
^
Lecturer, Bio-engineering --_ / \
/ \
School of Physiotherapy, Perth #_.---._/
Curtin University of Technology, V
GPO Box U1987,
Perth 6001, Tel +61 9 351 3649
Western Australia. Fax +61 9 351 3636

WWW: http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/physio/pt/staff/kirtley/
Clinical Gait Analysis: website with clinical cases, data & FAQ:
http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/physio/pt/staff/kirtley/cga
Internet Relay Chat: irc.curtin.edu.au (port 6667) "bio-engineering"
__________________________________________________ __________________

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From:
baruch Goldberg

Visit the site:'
http://www.arielnet.com

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From:
"Jill L. McNitt-Gray"

We look forward to your summary of responses... as ASB Education Chair.. we
have had requests to post such information on the homepage so that this
information can reach biomechanists.. USC just received a 12 million dollar
grant for multimedia research which will involve students in our lab...we
hope to be contributing in this area.

Thanks for initiating this discussion.

Jill


Jill L. McNitt-Gray, Ph.D.
Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Director
3560 Watt Way
Dept. of Exercise Science
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0652
213-740-2492
FAX 213-740-7909
email: mcnitt@usc.edu

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From:
bmatt@manawatu.gen.nz (Barrie Matthews)

Carol

In reply to your listserv posting, below. I can't help you but I am
conducting preliminary research on the efficacy of CAI in general, and
multimedia in particular, in sport. There is very little, as you say, in
the area of biomechanics but there is very little on any other aspect of
sport, either.

If you could send me anything you have found on CAI or multimedia, or
indicate where I could find some info, I would be grateful. (I have already
conducted searches of CD-ROM databases ERIC, PSYCLit and Sport Discus).

Obtaining copies of journal articles in New Zealand can be time consuming
and expensive (if they have to come from overseas) - do you know if such
info is or will be circulated on the Net?

Thanks in advance

Barrie Matthews (bmatt@manawatu.gen.nz)

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From:
adh95

Dear Professor Widule and Mr Moon

Although I cannot be of immediate help, I am hoping to start research for a PhD,
finance forthcoming, within the next 3 months (I am currently engaged on
research for a MPhil).

The topic of multimedia, hypermedia, the internet and biomechanical is one of my
interests, so hopefully I can contact you in the future.

Regards,

Anne

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| Anni Harris. Dept. of Computer Science, UWA, Dyfed, SY23 3DB |
| Email: adh95@aber.ac.uk WWW: http://www.aber.ac.uk/~adh95 |
| Phone: +44 1970 622403 FAX: +44 1970 622455 |
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From:
"Joseph E. Hale"


Please post a summary of your responses to the list! I believe this is a
topic of interest to many people in this field, myself included.
Unfortunately, I don't have much to contribute in terms of references to
published research. Good luck!

Joe Hale


Joseph E. Hale, Ph.D.
Orthopaedic Biomechanics Lab., Box 374 TEL: 804-924-5989
University of Virginia FAX: 804-924-1691
Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA email: jhale@virginia.edu

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>From Steve
McCaw

Hi Carol: I hope you plan to share your results with the community next year
at the Teaching Biomechanics and Kinesiology conference to be held at Texas
Women's University.

I am just now making a WWW site. I have been impressed with the materials
available (especially the Australian conference last January (I think) that
had the proceedings (with graphs and tables) on their web site within 3
days! I shared that with my class.

We are also constructing a multimedia teaching tool based on ADAM software.
I am incorporating biomechanics of low back pain with others' work on
physiological aspects. We are working off the cuff, with some advice from
multimedia people in Applied Computer Science. If it works, I plan to put it
into the Teaching conference next year.

If you get some worthwhile advice, I would appreciate you forwarding it to
me. Thanks.

Regards, Steve

Steven T. McCaw, Ph.D
Associate Professor, Biomechanics
Dept of HPER
5120 Illinois State University
Normal, IL 61790-5120
phone: 309-438-3804
fax: 309-438-5559
home: 309-452-9411

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From:
Denise Smith
Reply-To:
denise.smith@utoronto.ca


Dr. Widule,
While I cannot provide any answers, I am certainly
interested in your questions. I am currently looking at
alternative methods to deliver our biomechanics content
in our undergraduate physical therapy curriculum. I
would be greatly interested in receiving a summary of
the replies that you receive at your convenience.
Many thanks,

Denise Smith
Department of Physical Therapy
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
E-mail: denise.smith@utoronto.ca
Fax: 416 978 4363
Phone: 416 978 2180

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From:
davis@bme.ri.ccf.org


Hi Carol

I have been involved with the creation of a biomechanics learning
"module" that uses multimedia technology. The software package that
we use is called "Icon Author". It runs on both PC and Unix platforms
and allows you to insert video clips, audio, sequential images that can
be animated etc etc. We have included FEM models showing tissue
deformation (dynamically), plantar pressures (also dynamic), animated
gait sequences for normal and pathological gait as well as some basic
info regarding GRF patterns, anatomy and medical images.

I am also aware of a multimedia CD package by McNeil Alexander that
deals with animal and human locomotion.

Regards, Brian
-------------------------------------
Name: Brian L. Davis, PhD
E-mail: davis@bme.ri.ccf.org
http://www.ccf.org/ri/bme
Date: 06/21/96
Time: 08:37:27
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From:
Graeme Wood

Dear Carol and Jay,

I'm sorry, but I'm going to be one of many who will be responding
because they are greatly interested in your posting rather than being
able to offer much help!

We've just embarked on a CAIL vs Traditional Delivery study ourselves,
using our 2nd year undergraduate class in Motor Control and Learning as
the experimental subjects. In biomechanics we've used some simulation
software in place of conventional lab experimentation, but don't feel
we've found the correct recipe yet. I'm now embarking on the development
of a neuro-musculo-skeletal CAIL package myself, but am still looking for
the most suitable authoring kit to use as the delivery vehicle. It has to
be something that I can still do the simulations in as well as deliver
all the textual material.

So, let's keep in touch!

Graeme A. Wood, PhD
Associate Professor (Biomechanics)
Department of Human Movement
The University of Western Australia
Nedlands, WA 6907
AUSTRALIA
Tel: +61-9-380 2360
Fax: +61-9-380 1039
E-mail: gwood@uniwa.uwa.edu.au
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From:
"ROBERT N MARSHALL"

Dear Dr. Widule,

Delighted to see your posting, as it is an area I'm interested in
too. Have you contacted Moira McPherson at Lakehead Uni? She has
done a multimedia biomechanics presentation for coaches, and has done
some evaluation on it...

I'll look forward to your summary....

Best wishes
Bob Marshall

Associate Professor R.N. Marshall
Sports Science
The University of Auckland
Private Bag 92019
Auckland, New Zealand

ph. +64 9 373 7599 X6630
fax. +64 9 373 7043
email r.marshall@auckland.ac.nz

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From:
Robert Newton


I am not involved in research into the multimedia presentation of
biomechanics material but I do present a considerable amount of the course
material using the WWW. I have recently completed course evaluation and am
awaiting the results which I could forward to you. If you would like to see
what I have put together, the URL is:

http://www.scu.edu.au/hlthsci/exsci/biomech1.html

Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or comments.

Regards
Robert
--
Robert Newton
Lecturer, Centre for Exercise Science and Sport Management
Southern Cross University
PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, AUSTRALIA
Telephone: Int + 61 66 203 234 Facsimile: Int + 61 66 203 880
Email: rnewton@scu.edu.au

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From:
"Peter M. Quesada"

You might try contacting Dr. Sheldon Simon at Ohio State University,
Division of Orthopaedics. His group has been working on multi-media
instruction in Gait Analysis for some time now. For this type of
inquiry, it might be best to try to reach him through the Gait Lab at
614-293-3808. His e-mail address is Simon.1@osu.edu . Good luck with
your search.

Peter M. Quesada, Ph.D.
University of Louisville

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From:
rkippenc@ALPHA2.CURTIN.EDU.AU (Cameron Kippen)

Professor

My name is Cameron and I am currently registered as a Master student at the
Faculty of Education, Curtin University of Technology, WA, my subject is
multimedia and my project involves tracking the development of a package
called Toolbox devised by Chris Kirtley, Ray Smith and Rob Phillips. Chris,
you may know through Biomech L, is a medico-bioengineer and is current
employed in the School of Physiotherapy to teach biomechanics. My primal
qualification is a podiatrist but I retrained as a Educational Technologist
and Health Scientist. I have been interested in how best to teach
clinicians concepts of three dimensional motion for several years and met
Chris in 1994. He had similar interests and was primarily motivated by the
perceived limitations in the methods of teaching gait. Multimedia seemed to
offer an interesting medium.


The literature abounds with concerns relating to the potential hazards of
clinicians, who may have failed to internalise basic concepts (of
movement), yet are required to practice allopathic care. As a group we got
together and Chris et al developed the toolbox. Meantime I registered with
the Faculty of Education and am currently comparing this individual
initiative with the principles of instructional design and the expert
multimedia approach.

We are looking for research evidence which relates specific design
principles to learning outcomes.

My research is not on didactice classroom outcomes instead I am directly
interested in the costs both fiscal and curricular to units where
individuals are encouraged to ( or not prevented from) developing
multimedia by serendipidy. If you are correct in you prediction the
multimedia Black Hole may cost most than we can afford to pay.

In terms of outcomes there is a swag of references to the effects of
multimedia but nothing specific to bioengineering. There are several
projects involving Physics, which may have a bearing. Someone who may be
able to help is Don Cameron . The Open
University in the UK may also be a useful resource.

Charting the progress of the Toolbox has certainly been interesting and
impressionistically it has left me with an experience whereby the audio
visual aid started as a didactic tool, developed into one which influenced
students attitudes, became a reliable tool; and finally offered the
potential for an expert analysis system. Chris and I argue long and hard
about his creation and its short comings but I would say in twenty years
of teaching I have never witnesses such a quantum leap within he
classroom.

I hope this is is some interest to you

Cameron

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