View Full Version : responses:cervical spine loading

D.l. Benoit
07-22-1996, 04:28 AM
Hello fellow biomch-l ers,

Here is a summary of the responses for my request for cervical
spine loading, preceeded bye the original message and a few articles I
found to be helpful. Thanks to all who responded.


Chen et al., Kinematics of the Cervical Spine Canal: Changes with sagittal
plane loading.,J.Spinal Disord. Vol 7,#2 (93-101),1994

Shea et al.,Variations of stiffness and strength along the human cervical
spine.,J Biomechanics, Vol 24,#2 (95-107),1991

Cusick et al.,Cervical spine injuries from high velocity forces:a
pathoanatomic and radiologic study.,J Spinal Disord Vol 9,#1 (1-7)1996

Crowell et al.,Cervical injuries under flexion and compression loading.,J
Spinal Disord, Vol 6, #2 (175-181),1993

Yoganandan et al.,Strength and kinematic response of dynamic cervical
spine injuries., Spine, vol 16,#10sup. (s511-517),1991

Shea et al., In vitro hyperextension injuries in the cadaveric cervical
spine, J of Orthopaedic Research, vol 10 (911-916),1992

Neumann et al.,The ultimate flexural strength of the lumbar spine and
vertebral bone mineral content., J of Spinal Disord, vol 6, #4 (314-323)1993

Neumann et al.,The mechanism of initial flexion-distraction injury in the
lumbar spine, Spine, vol17 #9 (1083-1089),1992

Yogonadan et al.,strength and motion analysis of the human head-neck
complex, J of Spinal Disord, vol 4 #1 (73-85) 1991


>I am searching for information regarding the impact of repeated
>loading to the cervical spine via the back of the head. The
>situation we are investigating is such that forces up to the
>equivalence of three times the mass of the head*gravity (or up to
>approx. 180N), are applied to the occipital region of the skull at
>a loading rate ranging from 100 to 480 N/sec.
> This obviously causes flexion in the cervical region as the mass
>of the thorax resists the movement. My search has turned up a
>number of papers that investigate spinal loading to failure in
>various flexion and flexion-compression situations. However, I
>have been unsuccessful in locating papers that deal with the risk
>factors involved in submaximal repeated
>loading of the cervical spine (ie.: intervertebral disc
>degeneration, capsular or ligamentous damage etc...).
>Any references or information on this subject would be greatly
>appreciated and a summary of responses will be posted.


Twomey and Taylor have published some work, of note is a paper
published in Spine. I think it was in 1993 or 4. Their work was
more with wiplash/MVA and postmortem findings. I mention it
some of the same motions are involved and similar structures may in

fact be involved. Hope it helps. If you can't find the paper
e-mail me I can find the exact date and I have it some place.

Bob Streb
Department of Physical Therapy
Health Science Center
State University of New York at Stony Brook

We have done research on repetitive movements of the cervical spine
in response to flexion, extension, protrusion, and retraction
motions. Flexion and protrusion motions have shown correlations to
the onset of clinical symptoms and extension and retraction have
lessened these symptoms. I'm not sure from your post if this is any
interest because this does not deal with "impact loading" per se
and deals with repetitive movements. But, this may
provide you with some additional keywords to search under. If you
have any questions or want some references, feel free to contact

Nat Ordway
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse

Dear Daniel,
I remember an article about this subject in Ergonomics or Applied
Ergonomics in the last 12 months.
If you don't have access to this journal please let me know so I
can find
the complete reference,
With kinds regards
Johan Molenbroek
| Johan Molenbroek, PhD |
| Associate Professor Engineering Anthropometry |
| Acting Chair Subdepartment Physical Ergonomics |
| Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering |
| Delft University of Technology |


You pose an interesting question. Unfortunately, I am not aware of
any studies in which horizontal plane cyclic loads have been

Single cycle loading has been performed by a number of authors
including all the older sled work, and the current low delta
V work whiplash investigations.

If these references are of interest to you let me know. Also,
would you be kind enough to send me the results of your query?
I am curious to see what has been done in this area.

With regards,

Barry Myers M.D., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor
Duke University
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery