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Micah Forstein
08-07-1996, 03:04 AM
Dear List Members,

Thank you for your assistance With the search on information on the
simultaneous use of EMG and FES. The following is a summary of responses.

Micah Forstein M.S.
Motion Lab Engineer
Childrens Hospital Los Angeles
forstein@hsc.usc.edu

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Date: Tue, 23 Jul 96 9:03:58 PDT
X-Priority: 3 (Normal)
To:
From: (Jeff Pisciotta)
Subject: re:Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
Mime-Version: 1.0

Micah,
I don't know much about the simultaneous use of either [funny I
thought about doing this once at OSU for a project]. The people at Wright
State might know more, they were doing a few things while I was at Ohio State.
Unfortunately, both Mary Rogers and Dave Schrag have moved on.

Take care,
Jeff

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Date: Tue, 23 Jul 1996 12:38:24 -0400 (EDT)
From: Pascale Chavet
X-Sender: pchavet@ccshst01
To: Micah Forstein
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
Mime-Version: 1.0

Hello,
About this topic I think you must find interesting things in papers
written by Dr Emmanuel RABISCHONG, Ph.D. I don't have in mind
specifically the tittle of his papers, but his topics are FES,
paraplegia, fatigue, muscular control and EMG measurements. He published
mainly in "Paraplegia" and in "Journal of Biomedical Engineering".
Hope that will helph!
-------------------------------------
Pascale Chavet, Ph.D
Biomechanics Laboratory
Human Biology and Nutritional Science
University of Guelph
Guelph, Ont. N1G 2W1, CANADA
Phone: (519) 824-4120 ext 6897
Fax: (519) 767-1942
E.mail:pchavet@uoguelph.ca
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X-Priority: 4
Date: Tue, 23 Jul 1996 13:14:11 +0000
From: Michael McPartland
Subject: RE>Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
To: Micah Forstein

Micah,
I have in the past given some thought to the development of such a hybrid
system. The system I was concerned with dealt with a transcutaneous constant-
current stimulator. In a constant current stimulator, the voltages across the
electrodes can become relatively high exceeding 100 volts at times (see
McPartland and Mook, 'A Robust Transcutaneous Electro-muscle Stimulator (RTES):
A Multi-modality Tool', Med. Eng. Phys. Vol 17, No.4, pp. 314-318, 1995).

Because EMG measuring amplifiers typically can not withstand such high voltage
input levels, the leads coming from and EMG electrodes (which could also serve
as a FES electrodes maybe...?) to the amplifiers will need to be isolated
during the stimulus input period. The last time I looked, I believe I found
some optically isolated AND controlled switches that were fast enough for this
purpose, however, I've forget who the manufacturer was.

For typical bi-phasic constant-current stimulation of large muscles, stimulus
pulse duration lasts less than 1000 micro-seconds and occurs at frequencies
less than 100 Hz. Hence, the period of time for EMG sampling is rather
significant and is typically greater than 90% of real time.

Please feel free to contact me directly for further discussion.

Best regards,
Michael

Michael D. McPartland, Ph.D.
Metron Inc.

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X-Sender: kjcole@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu
Mime-Version: 1.0
Date: Tue, 23 Jul 1996 13:47:40 -0500
To: Micah Forstein
From: Kelly Cole
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES

I think that there was a recent issue of one of the IEEE periodicals that
contained several papers on the topic, or at least on how to remove the FES
artifact from the EMG signal. This artifact poses somewhat of a problem for
the real-time use of EMG to modulate FES.
Kelly J. Cole, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Exercise Science
The University of Iowa kjcole@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu
Voice: (319) 335-9491 or
FAX: (319) 335-6966 kelly-cole@uiowa.edu



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Date: Tue, 23 Jul 96 21:43:27 +0200
From: jharlaar@cca.vu.nl (Jaap Harlaar)
To: forstein@hsc.usc.edu
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES

Dear Micah,
recently we build a system that controls upper extremity FES by the processed
surface EMG of another muscle. I works fine with normal individuals, and we
currently test it for patients. Like your earch, we did not found much
literature on this topic. In a few weeks I'll be back at the office and will
be able to tell you more, if you like.
I'd really like to share the answers you got, if possible.

Regards,

Jaap Harlaar
Dept. Rehabilitation Medicine
Free University Hospital
Amsterdam
The Netherlands

email: jharlaar@cca.vu.nl

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Date: Wed, 24 Jul 1996 09:33:30 +0200
From: Oyvind Stavdahl
To: forstein@hsc.usc.edu
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
Mime-Version: 1.0

Dear Mr. Forstein,

A search in my archive revealed the following reference, which is old but
apparently relevant to
your request (I apologize for the BibTeX format):

@ARTICLE{sol86,
AUTHOR = {M. ~Solomonow and R. ~Baratta and H. ~Shoji
and R. ~D. ~D'Ambrosia},
JOURNAL = {IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering},
MONTH = aug,
NUMBER = {8},
PAGES = {735-45},
TITLE = {The Myoelectric Signal of Electrically
Stimulated Muscle during
Recruitment: An Inherent Feedback Parameter for a Closed-Loop Control Scheme},
VOLUME = {BME-33},
YEAR = {1986},
}



Regards from Norway,

Oyvind Stavdahl (Siv.ing., Dr.ing. student)
Deptartment of Engineering Cybernetics
NTNU, The Norwegian University of
Science and Technology Direct line: +47 73 59 43 77
O. Bragstads plass 8 Switchboard: +47 73 59 43 76
N-7034 TRONDHEIM Fax: +47 73 59 43 99
NORWAY Email: Oyvind.Stavdahl@itk.ntnu.no
http://www.itk.ntnu.no/ansatte/Stavdahl_Oyvind


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Date: Wed, 24 Jul 1996 11:54:13 +0100 (BST)
From: Dr Ben Heller
X-Sender: mp1bh@sunc
To: Micah Forstein
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
MIME-Version: 1.0

Micah,

Have you also sent this enquiry to FES-L?

Some Masters students of ours have recently completed a project in which
they attempted to pick up residual emg and use it to control stimulation
in the same muscle. This obviously involves a lot of stimulation artefact
rejection. They had good success with their technique on normal
volunteers, and some preliminary success on one paraplegic with an
incomplete lesion. Contact me if you want more details.

Some references:

Hoffer A.J. et al. Neula signals for command and control and feedback in
functional neuromuscular stimulation: a review. J. Rehab R&D 33(2)145-57
1996

Graupe D, Kohn K.H. A critical review of EMG controlled electrical
stimulation in Paraplegics. CRC crit. revs. Biomed Eng 15(3):187-210 1988

Barker et al Blocking of transmission of stimulus related electrical
interference to inputs of high gain AC pre-amplifiers used for
neuromuscular measurement. J. Physiol ?:391-4 1987

Mizrahi et al EMG as an indicator of fatigue in isometrically FES
activated paralysed muscles. IEEE trans Rehab. Eng. 2(2)57-64 1994

Minzly et al. Stimulus artefact suppressor for EMG recording during FES
by a constant-current stimulator. Med Biol Eg Comp 32:72-5

Saxena et al An EMG-controlled grasping system for tetraplegics J. Rehab
R&D 32(1)17-24 1995

Ben Heller PhD. Medical Physics, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield


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Date: Thu, 25 Jul 1996 14:50:15 +0300 (IDT)
From: "Prof. Joe Mizrahi"
To: Micah Forstein
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
MIME-Version: 1.0

Please refer to the following:
- Mizrahi, J. Levy, M. Ring, H., Isakov, E. and Liberson, A.:
EMG as an indicator of fatigue of isometrically FES-activated paralyzed
muscles. IEEE Trans Rehab Eng 2:57-65, 1994.
- Minzly, J. Mizrahi, J. Hakim, N.and Liberson, A.: A stimulus artifact
suppressor for EMG recording during FES by a constant current
stimulator. Med Biol Eng & Comp 31:72-75, 1993.

Also, a special issue of the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
devoted to Muscle Fatigue in FES is now in press. The Guest Editor is the
undersigned and some of the papers to appear in this issue deal with the
above topic.

=====================================
Prof. Joseph Mizrahi , D.Sc.
Dept. of Biomedical Eng. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa 32000, Israel
Phone: +972-4-8294128 Fax: +972-4-8234131
e-mail: jm@biomed.technion.ac.il

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X-Sender: bmemberg@mhnet.mhmc.org
Mime-Version: 1.0
Date: Thu, 25 Jul 1996 12:50:33 -0400
To: forstein@hsc.usc.edu
From: wdm@po.cwru.edu (Bill Memberg)
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES

Try contacting the FES information center, at 1-800-666-2353, or by
e-mail at fes_info@po.cwru.edu. They have a large database of FES
articles. I know some work has been done in this area and is ongoing, but
I can't recall the references offhand. Good luck.


______________________________________________
Bill Memberg U.S. Mail: Orthopaedics Dept.
E-mail: wdm@po.cwru.edu MetroHealth Medical Center
Voice: (216) 778-3085 2500 MetroHealth Drive
FAX: (216) 778-8409 Cleveland, OH 44109

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Date: Wed, 24 Jul 1996 22:17:01 +0200
From: Oyvind Stavdahl
Subject: Re: Simultaneous use of EMG/FES
To: forstein@hsc.usc.edu
Mime-Version: 1.0

Dear Mr. Forstein,

By accident I ran into two more references, which I forward in case they
are of interest. The first
one is about amplifiers designed to be switched off during electrical
stimulation (somewhat hard to
tell from the title :-)

@ARTICLE{bru91,
AUTHOR = {E. ~Bruun and E.-U. ~Haxthausen},
JOURNAL = {Electronics Letters},
MONTH = nov,
NUMBER = {23},
PAGES = {2172-72},
TITLE = {{Current Conveyor Based Amplifier with
Shutdown Control}},
VOLUME = {27},
YEAR = {1991},
}

@ARTICLE{nik94,
AUTHOR = {Z. ~M. ~Nikolic and D. ~B. ~Popovic and R.
~B. ~Stein and Z.
~Kenwell},
JOURNAL = {IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering},
MONTH = jul,
NUMBER = {7},
PAGES = {703-706},
TITLE = {{Instrumentation for ENG and EMG Recordings
in FES Systems}},
VOLUME = {41},
YEAR = {1994},
}

Regards,

Oyvind Stavdahl (Siv.ing., Dr.ing. student)
Deptartment of Engineering Cybernetics
NTNU, The Norwegian University of
Science and Technology Direct line: +47 73 59 43 77
O. Bragstads plass 8 Switchboard: +47 73 59 43 76
N-7034 TRONDHEIM Fax: +47 73 59 43 99
NORWAY Email: Oyvind.Stavdahl@itk.ntnu.no
http://www.itk.ntnu.no/ansatte/Stavdahl_Oyvind



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Thank you again for your help,

Micah Forstein M.S.