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Stephen W. Vaitl, D.c., C.c.s.p.
08-19-1996, 03:00 PM
As promised, I am posting a summary of responses to my request for
static posture normalative data.

The responses are after my signature. Thanks to all those who took the
time to respond.

--=20
Steve

http://www.sound.net/~docv/index.htm
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Stephen W. Vaitl, D.C.
Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician
Director of Rehabilitation
Assistant Professor, Department of Principles and Practice
Cleveland Chiropractic College - Kansas City
docv@sound.net

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Here's my original posting;

I'm looking for any articles, preferably published, that establish a
normaltive database for static posture in humans. Most of the
information
I've obtained so far is either dynamic postural measures (more recent
articles) or very old publications (circa 1909-1945) that only address
the
issue from a generalized aspect.

Any help would be greatly appreciated!

Steve



Here are the responses I got;


Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 13:07:43 -0300
From: mochi@mail.iss.lcca.usp.br

Dear Steve,

Take a look im my homepage
(http://www.usp.br/eef/biomecan/mochzuki.htm), there you may find
something
to you.

Luis

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Date: 07 Aug 1996 11:38:42 -0500 (EST)
From: COLLINS@bunmrg.bu.edu
=20

Hi,

A colleague of mine forwarded me your BIOMCH-L posting. =20
My research group has published a series of recent papers dealing with
static
posture. If you send me your regular mailing address, I would be happy
to send
you copies of these papers. All the best.
=20
Jim Collins
Research Associate Professor
NeuroMuscular Research Center
Boston University

(Jim has sent me about six or seven articles)

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Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 11:51:24 -0500 (CDT)
From: Michael J Dancisak


Your request for more information on unconstrained static posture may
not
produce much more than what you already have. I am currently completing
my
dissertation on human stance. We have already collected observational
data
and have found some interesting results. The next step is to collect
pressure data during stance in several non-pathological populations at=20
different stages of human development.

IF you are looking for some current information you might see several=20
articles by Woollacott, Nashner, or Shumway-Cook. You can check Winter
or=20
Patla as well. Good luck!

Mic Dancisak Office: (612) 625-9387
University of Minnesota Fax: (612) 626-7700
Division of Kinesiology e-mail: danc0002@gold.tc.umn.edu
20 Cooke Hall
1900 University Ave. S.E.
Minneapolis, MN 55455

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Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 16:30:14 -0400 (EDT)
From: Edward Francis Owens


Steve,

Did you catch:

"A radiographic comparison of neutral cervical posture with cervical=20
flexion and extension ranges of motion" by J.S. Miller, N.L. Polossar
and=20
M. Haas, (JMPT vol 19, #5. pp296-301, June 1996)

Only 16 subjects, but they presented stats on intersegmental angles at=20
neutral position, as well as a fairly good bibliography.

One article they missed might also be of interest, again cervical=20
spine only:

Owens EF, Hoiriis KT. Cervical curvature assessment using a digitized=20
radiographic analysis. CRJ 1(4):47-62, 1990.

In that study we have distribution plots of several curvature factors on=20
about 100 subjects, taken from neutral lateral x-rays.

Hope these help,

Ed Owens
Life College

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Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 23:44:28 +0200 (METDST)
From: Claus Willemer

Dear Stephen,=20
May be, I can help you, but I will come home in about one week. So, if
you=20
are able to wait a little bit, please reply.
The only thing I can say now: following the information I got, there is=20
no standard way to measure posture and the connection between posture,=20
function and pain is not well described- may be, because there is no
standard
method, may be, there is no certain relation.
These are two very good reasons, posture is sill a kind of mystery.
may be, I am wrong, but certainly something to consider.
Ways to measure posture: Xray, photographic and videographic methods,=20
direct measure of the surface,...
Sincerely yours,
Claus Willemer
Heidelberg

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Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 14:51:36 -0700
From: dr_gary@ix.netcom.com (Dr. Gary Erkfritz )


Dear Dr. Steve,

Might I suggest you look up any articles by Lowell E. Ward, D.C. To my=20
knowledge, he's the only one that has published information on the=20
entire spinal column-pelvic-meningeal unit measurement. I know that=20
you can call his office in Long Beach, CA, and he will send you=20
articles that have been published.

Yours,
Dr. Gary Erkfritz
Newbury Park, CA

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Date: Thu, 08 Aug 1996 07:58:17 +1000
From: Robert Newton


Stephen,

I published the following paper in 1994. Please let me know if would
like a
reprint.

Newton, R.U., and R.J. Neal. Three Dimensional Quantification of Human
Posture. Gait and Posture. 2: 205-212. 1994.=20

Sincerely
Robert Newton

--
Robert Newton
Lecturer, Centre for Exercise Science and Sport Management
Southern Cross University
PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, AUSTRALIA
Telephone: Int + 61 66 203 234 Facsimile: Int + 61 66 203 880
Email: rnewton@scu.edu.au

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Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 16:39:55 -0600 (MDT)
From: jaime@roadrunner.com (Jaime Cobb)


I'm not sure if this will help, but... You may wish to point your
browser
to the Visible Human Project, sorry I don't have the URL it's been over
a
year since I've looked at that site. They, or the people working on the
project may be able to help. You see they are putting together MRI
normals
of a normal man and normal woman. I think they must have determined
some
criteria for normal, and that might get you to the info you are looking
to
find.

Good Luck

Jaime Cobb, D.C., D.O.M.

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Date: Thu, 8 Aug 96 8:33:29 PDT
From: (Pro Stergiou)


Stephen,

Here is one published article that might give you a starting point:

Winter, D.A., Prince, F., Stergiou, P., Powell, C. Medial-lateral and=20
anterior-posterior motor responses associated with centre of pressure=20
changes in quiet standing. Neuroscience Research Communications 12(3),=20
141-148, 1993.

Regards,

Pro

-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pro Stergiou
c/o NIKE (Sports Research Laboratory)
One Bowerman Drive
Beaverton, OR
97006-6453, U.S.A.
e-mail: pro.stergiou@nike.com
-----------------------------------------------------------------

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Date: Thu, 8 Aug 1996 17:04:10 +0100
From: Andrew Pinder


Look at=20

D'Angelo M.D., Grieve D.W., Pereira L.F. and Watkinson T. (1987), "A
description of normal relaxed standing postures", CLinical Biomechanics,
2(3), 140-144.

Andrew Pinder
Ergonomics and Work Psychology Section
Health and Safety Laboratory
Broad Lane
Sheffield S3 7HQ
UK

Phone: + 44 114 289 2594
Fax: + 44 114 289 2526
email: apinder@ewps-hsl.demon.co.uk

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Date: Sat, 10 Aug 1996 11:56:58 +0000
From: ortho pitie
Organization: psl.ap-hop-paris.fr


Dear colleague,
I'm working to static and dynamic "normal" posture, this is a part of=20
my biobliography:

1. CHRISTENSON PC.
The radiological study of the normal spine.=20
Radiol Clin North Am 1977;15:133-154.

2. DELMAS A., A. P.
D=E9termination des axes fonctionnels des vert=E9bres lombaires.=20
Semaine des H=F4pitaux. Arch. Anat. 1957;1(Janv):58-63.

3. FRYMOYER JW., FRYMOYER WW., WILDER DG., et Coll.
The mechanical and kinematic analysis of the lumbar spine in=20
normal livilg human subjects in vivo.=20
J. Biomech. 1979;12:165-172.

4. GONON G.P.=20
Etude biom=E9canique de la colonne dorso-lombaire de D10 =E0 S1.=20
[M=E9decine].=20
Lyon, 1975.

5. PANJABI M., CHANG D., J. D.
An analysis of errors in kinematic parameters associated with in=20
vivo functional radiographs.=20
Spine 1992;17(2):200-205.

6. PANJABI MM, GOEL VK.
Errors in kinematic parameters of a planar joint: guidelines for=20
optimal experimental design.=20
J. Biomech 1982;15:537-544.

7. STAGNARA P., DE MAUROY JC., DRAN G., et Coll.
Reciprocal angulation of vertebral bodies in a sagittal plane:=20
approach to references for the evaluation of kyphosis and lordosis.=20
Spine 1982;7(4):335-342.

8. WHITE A, PANJABI H.
Clinical biomechanics of the spine.=20
JB Lippincott Company, Philadelphia 1978;.


S. Ramar=E9

Dr S. Ramar=E9 (M.D)
University Paris VI
Orthopaedic service, Pitie Hospital, Paris, France

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Date: Mon, 12 Aug 1996 09:56:14 -0700
From: Gunter Siegmund
Organization: MacInnis Engineering


Steve,

Normative balance data exists, however because everyone appears to have=20
different favorite measure of balance, its often difficult to find=20
normative data for the types of tests you are considering. Articles we=20
have found useful for our experiments are:

Goldie, P.A., Evans, O.M., and Bach, T.M., Steadiness in one-legged=20
stance: development of a reliable force platform testing procedure,
Arch Phys Med Rehabil, Vol 73, April 1992.

Goldie, P.A., Bach, T.M., and Evans, O.M., Force platform measures for=20
evaluating postural control: reliability and validity, Arch Phys Med=20
Rehabil, Vol 70, July 1989.

Burl, M.M., Williams, J.G., and Nayak, U.S.L., Effect of cervical=20
collars on standing balance, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, Vol 73, December=20
1992.

Suomi, R. and Koceja, D.M., Postural sway patterns of normal men and=20
women and men with retardation during two-legged stance test, Arch Phys=20
Med Rehabil, Vol 75, February 1994.

Gagey, P.M. and Weber, B., Posturologie. Regulation et dereglements de=20
la station bebout (in french), Masson, Paris, 1995. (ISBN=20
2-225-84881-5)

As you can see, the Archives of the American Academy of Physical=20
Medicine and Rehabilitation are a useful data source. Good luck in your=20
hunt and please post a summary of your responses.

Cheers,

Gunter Siegmund
MacInnis Engineering Associates
Richmond BC Canada
gunters@maceng.com