View Full Version : Femoral Nailing Responses

Chetan Hira
08-28-1996, 09:32 PM
Greetings to all,

The following is a summary of responses that I received for my request
on help with femoral nailing. I would sincerely like to thank all those
people for their assistance and time to reply.


Here is my original message

Dear List Members

I am Mechanical Engineering student at the University of Natal,
Durban, South Africa. I am currently working on a project to
determine fatigue properites on an intra-medullary nail for the
femur. Before the fatigue test can be performed, I need to know what
type of loading conditions occur at the knee. In particular, I'm
interested in the resultant forces due to muscles, body weight and
ground reaction forces. If anyone has come across any such analysis
or information, I would greatly appreciate it you could share it
with me.

Thanking you in advance

Chetan Hira.

Chetan Hira
Depatrment of Mechanical Engineering
University of Natal- Durban
E-mail : hirac@venter.und.ac.za


Responses :

Date sent: Fri, 16 Aug 1996 14:30:35 -0400 (EDT)
From: Dean Inglis

Dear Chetan,

There is an excellent book called "Advances in Artificial Hip and Knee
Joint Technology", ed. M. Schaldach and D. Hohmann, Springer-Verlag,
Berlin 1976. (ISBN 3-540-07728-6). It contains information on
physiological joint loading, among other things.

Try papers in Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Journal of Bone
and Joint Surgery, and Journal of Biomechanics authored by John P.
Paul, G. Bergmann, A. Rohlmann, G. M. Kotzar, D. T. Davy, H. Kellner,
H. Rohrle, or R. D. Crowninshield.

Good Luck!

Dean Inglis

-Dean Inglis
e-mail: g8415510@mcmail.cis.mcmaster.ca
Dept. of Civil Engineering
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario

Date sent: Tue, 20 Aug 1996 11:16:12 +0200
From: Georg Duda
Organization: Unfallchirurgische Forschung und Biomechanik

Hi Chetan,

I just found your email. You can check my home page for an abstract of
my thesis on the internal loads in the femur due to muscle activity.
It is on the publications page. If you have problems reading the html
or accessing a web server, let me know.



Dr. Ing. Georg Duda
Abteilung Unfallchirurgische Forschung & Biomechanik
Universitaet Ulm - Klinikum
Helmholtzstrasse 14
89 081 ULM
tel: +49.731.502.3494
fax: +49.731.502.3498
email: duda@sirius.medizin.uni-ulm.de

From: ronny@gait52.mgh.harvard.edu
Date sent: Tue, 13 Aug 96 11:01:31 -0400

The literature is rich with data on knee joint forces -- unfortunately
not all of it agrees, which is mainly due to small errors which occur
in the measurement of motion and in locating orientations of soft
tissue and contacting surfaces. Nevertheless, there are a few papers
which stand out. I am assuming you are interested in knee forces
during gait. The majority of data available in the literature centres
around the patello-femoral joint, but I take it you are mainly
interested in femoro-tibial contact force? Some good papers to start
with are:

Morrison, JB "Mechanics of the Knee in Relation to Normal Walking."
ASME Biomedical Engineering, Vol 3., 1970, pp. 51-61 Nisell et al.,
"Joint Forces in Extension of the Knee" Acta Orthpaedica
Scandinavica, Vol. 57, 1986, pp41-46

but an excellent treatment of knee forces during gait can be found in:

Biden et al., "Gait Analysis" In: Knee Ligaments; Structure,
Function, Injury and Repair. Dale Daniel et al. (Eds), Raven Press
Ltd., pp. 291-310, 1990

This paper covers joint contact forces as well as ligament and muscle
forces during single limb stance of gait. If your library does not
have access to this book, let me know and I'll mail you a copy of the
paper -- the author was my PhD supervisor and I still have a few
copies of the paper floating around.


Chris A. McGibbon PhD (Ronny)
MGH Biomotion Lab
Boston MA, 02114

Date sent: Tue, 13 Aug 96 12:03:10 bst
From: David Davis

C. Hira,

The following referances might be of some help:

Boccardi S, 1981, Evaluation of muscular moments at the lower limb
joint by the on-line processing of kinematic data and ground reaction,
J Biomech, 14:35-45 Ciccotti M.G. et al., 1994, An electromyographical
analysis of the knee during functional activities, The American
Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol.22 No.5, pp.645-649 Ericson M O, 1986,
Quantified electromyography of lower limb muscles during level
walking, Scand J Rehabil Med, 18:159-163 Hoy M G, 1990, A
Musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity: The effect of
muscle, tendon and moment arm on the moment-angle relationship of
musculotendon actuators at the hip, knee and ankle; J Biomech 23:157
Ounpuu S, 1989, Bilateral electromyographical analysis of the lower
limbs during walking in normal adults, Electroencephalogr Clin
Neurophysiol, 72(5):429 Roehrle H, 1984, Joint forces in the human
pelvis-leg skeleton during walking, J.Biomech 17:6: pp409-424,
Pergammon Press


David Davis
David Davis
Department of Human Sciences
Loughborough University
Leics. LE11 3TU
Tel: 01509 223086
Fax: 01509 223941
Email: D.Davis@lboro.ac.uk

From: "A.J. Kerin"
Date sent: Tue, 13 Aug 1996 12:39:10 +0000 (BST)

Dear Chetan,
Some of these may be of some use to you. Could you post a
response of replies as well please.

Arokoski, J., Jurvelin, J., Kiviranta, I., Tammi, M., Helminen, H.J.
(1994) Softening of the lateral condyle articular cartilage in the
canine knee joint after long distance (up to 40 km/day) running
training lasting one year. International Journal of Sports Medicine}
15(5), 254-260.

Awbrey, B.J., Richlen, C.A., Golpovar, M. (1993) Human and bovine
articular cartilage loading measured with a new resistive sensor:
Effects of protease degradation and osteoarthritis. Agents. Act.}
39(S, pp.101-105), .

Swann, A.C., Seedhom, B.B. (1993) The stiffness of normal articular
cartilage and the predominant acting stress levels: Implications for
the aetiology of osteoarthrosis. British Journal of Rheumatology}
32(1, pp.16-25), .

Minns, R.J. (1981) Forces at the knee joint: Anatomical
considerations. {IJ.} Biomech.} 14(9), 633-643.

Hoshino, A., Wallace, W.A. (1987) Impact-absorbing properties of the
human knee. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B} 69(5),

Hilding, M.B., Lanshammar, H., Ryd, L. (1995) A relationship between
dynamic and static assessments of knee joint load. Gait analysis and
radiography before and after knee replacement in 45 patients. Acta.
Orthop. Scand.} 66(4), 317-320.

Good Luck, Alex Kerin
University of Bristol
School of Veterinary Science
Southwell Street
Bristol. BS2 8EJ
email: A.Kerin@bristol.ac.uk
Voice: +44 (0)117 9288792

Date sent: Tue, 13 Aug 1996 10:19:48 -0500 (CDT)
From: "Kenneth R. St. John"

Did you consider just doing one of the (rapidly becoming) standard tests
for IM nail fatigue. ISO has one under development as does ASTM. You
should be able to get copies of both methods from the respective
organizations. I think I could come up with a copy of the ASTM
methods and may have a copy of the ISO draft. Loren Latta from Miami,
FL, USA should have them available.

************************************************** ******************
Kenneth R. St. John, Assistant Professor Voice: (601) 984-6199
Orthopaedic Research and Biomaterials Fax: (601) 984-6087
University of Mississippi Medical Center
2500 North State Street
Jackson, MS 39216-4505
Internet: stjohn@umsmed.edu
************************************************** ******************

Date sent: Tue, 13 Aug 1996 14:17:42 +0200 (MDT)
From: Jan Thunnissen

Dear hira,

A reference is mine Ph.D. thesis: Muscle force prediction during human
gait. If you need a copy please drop a line.

Best regards, Jan

Dr.ir. Jan G.M. Thunnissen
TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute
Phone: +31 15 269 63 35
P.O. Box 6033, 2600 JA, DELFT
Fax: +31 15 262 43 21
The Netherlands
URL: http://www.tno.nl
E-Mail: thunnissen@wt.tno.nl

Date sent: Thu, 15 Aug 1996 13:44:01 +0100 (BST)
From: "Mrs. J.Fonseca"

Dear Chetan,

I was very interested to read your message on the Biomch Listserver. I
am trying to assess the forces generated in the joints of the lower
body with the objective of using this information to assess the
functioning and health of joints. The method I am using is to produce
a controlled impact of the standing body on to a load cell, and to
analyse the pattern of forces obtained.

I was particularly interested to read your message because I have also
been searching for information on joint forces. With the exception of
work done by Bergmann,G (1995. Influence of shoes and heel strike on
the loading of the hip joint. J Biomechanics 28: 817-827) on the hip,
I have found no direct measurements of joint forces. I am concerned
about the poor reliability of force estimations using inverse
dynamics analysis. This is particularly important because my work so
far has shown that posture, ie, the exact angles of bones, and muscle
tension have a very significant effect on the forces generated at

I would very much appreciate hearing more about your work, and any
direct measurement of forces in the legs you may have made or come

With thanks

Jenny Fonseca