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Peter Sinclair
10-13-1996, 02:00 PM
Thank you to all that replied to my request for data (original request shown
at end of message). I realised very quickly that my library skills were not
lacking, the information I needed doesn't seem to be in the published
literature. I got plenty of references on the development of muscle models
(many of which I already had), but very few useful replies giving data for
testing a model I already have. Mark Willems told me what I had already
suspected; that while the data I need is usually collected for muscle
studies, after normalisation and selection of appropriate variables, not all
the original material can be reconstructed from the published reports.
Therefore I need to directly contact the people conducting this research.
This I have done and some promised raw data is on its way.

Some people suggested references that gave values for fibre length,
pennation, etc at optimum (or standardised) position, but no comparison
between active and passive. References such as these are essential for
developing a model, but give no data for testing that model dynamically.
Jiping He. Feedback gains for correcting small perturbation of a cat
posture" in IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, 1991, AC36:322-332.
Leiber (1990?). Muscle Stucture and Function. Wilkins & Williams

Some people refered me to existing models with no data to compare my model
with.
Kaufmann, An and Chao. Incorporation of Muscle Architecture into the Muscle
Length-Tension relationship. J Biomechanics, 22(8/9): 943-948, 1989
Fitts, McDonald, Schlutter (1991) The determinants of skeletal muscle force
and power: Their adaptability witch changes in the activity pattern. J. of
Biomechanics 24 111-122.

Julian Tang suggested I look for data on fish from a number of authors.
After thinking about this and reading abstracts from these authors I
realised that I had to be a bit species specific. The arrangement of fish
musculature tends to have broad origins and insertions, without the
arrangement of aponeuroses feeding into a tendon at each end. Thus, any
comparison of pennation angle changes would be dicey.
Julian's recommended sources were:
I.A. Johnston (Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
J.D. Altringham (Dept. of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, UK).
R. McNeil Alexander (Dept. of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds,
UK.)
L.C. Rome (Department of Zoology/Biology, University of Pennsylvania).

The following article had the same problem. With the broad origin of the
diaphragm, its morphology is too different from most extremity muscles to
make a useful comparison.
Strumpf, Humphrey and Yin (1993) Biaxial mechanical properties of passive
and tetanized canine diaphragm. Am.J.of Phisiology 265, H469-H475.


Some articles came close, giving all the data I needed for active, but not
for both active and passive conditions.
Zuurbier and Huijing (1993) Changes in geometry of actively shortening
unipennate rat gastrocnemius muscle. J. of Morphology, p167-180.
Bobbert et al., (1990). The force-length relationship of a muscle-tendon
complex: experimental results and model calculations. Eur.J.appl.Physiol.
61, 323-329

These references were recommended, but I haven't managed to track them down yet.
"Data book on mechanical properties of living cells, tissues and organs" ed.
Hiroyuki Abe, Kozaburo Hayashi and Masaaki Sato. New York, Springer, (1996)
ISBN 4-421-70175-3
Ettema & Huijing, Anat. Rec. 1994, 239, 414-420

Thanks again to everyone who helped. These people were:
Mark Willems willems@wvnvms.wvnet.edu
james major jmajor@deans.health.utah.edu
Julian W. Tang j.w.tang@sheffield.ac.uk
Jiping He hjp@asu.edu
Oyvind Stavdahl Oyvind.Stavdahl@itk.ntnu.no
Sander Gielen sander@wfw.wtb.tue.nl
Gertjan Ettema G.Ettema@mailbox.uq.oz.au



Greetings from Sydney

Peter Sinclair
Division of Biomechanics E-mail: p.sinclair@cchs.usyd.edu.au
Faculty of Health Sciences Phone: 61 2 9351 9137
The University of Sydney Fax: 61 2 9351 9520
East St
Lidcombe NSW 2141
Australia


************************************************** **************************
Original Message
************************************************** **************************
>Dear Biomechanists,
>
>I am working on some muscle modelling and would like some data to check my
>calculations. I wish to check on the amount of fibre shortening as a muscle
>develops isometric tension. To do this I need values for the following
>parameters:
>
>length of muscle fibres
>length of muscle belly
>angle of pennation of fibres
>length of tendon (this may or not be separated into tendon that is external
>and internal to the belly)
>force in muscle
>
>I wish for values for these parameters at rest and with the muscle active;
>preferably at a variety of muscle lengths. I also need values about the
>above parameters when the muscle is at its optimum length for producing force.
>
>I don't care which muscle I use or from what species; provided I have enough
>detail to check my model. If someone can help me out with this then I will
>be very grateful (as will the rabbits that may otherwise feel obliged to
>volunteer for data collection)
>
>I expected this data to be easily come by in the literature. Unfortunately,
>each study I find only reports some of these parameters, or normalises data
>to such an extent that the original data is hard to get at.
>
>The following papers present some of this data; but none of them have
>exactly what I want.
>
>Ettema GJC, Huijing PA (1989). Properties of the tendinous structures and
>series elastic component of EDL muscle-tendon complex of the rat. Journal of
>Biomechanics. 22(11/12): 1209-1215.
>
>Griffiths RI (1991). Shortening of muscle fibres during stretch of the
>active cat medial gastrocnemius muscle: the role of tendon compliance.
>Journal of Physiology. 436: 219-236.
>
>Huijing PA, van Lookeren Campagne AAH, Koper JF (1989). Muscle architecture
>and fibre characteristics of rat gastrocnemius and semimembranosus muscles
>during isometric contractions. Acta Anatomica. 135: 46-52.
>
>Lieber RL, Brown CG, Trestik CL (1992). Model of muscle-tendon interaction
>during frog semitendinous fixed-end contractions. Journal of Biomechanics.
>25(4): 421-428.
>
>Muhl ZF (1982). Active length-tension relation and the effect of muscle
>Pinnation on Fibre Length. Journal of Morphology. 173: 285-292.
>
>Zuurbier CJ Everard AJ, van der Wees P, Huijing PA (1994). Length-force
>characteristics of the aponeurosis in the passive and active muscle
>condition and in the isolated condition. Journal of Biomechanics. 27(4):
>445-453.
>
>In addition, this paper has no data but gives a thorough review of muscle
>structure.
>Otten E (1988). Concepts and models of functional architecture in skeletal
>muscle.. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews. 16: 98-137.
>
>
>Thanks in advance for your assistance.
>
Peter Sinclair
p.sinclair@cchs.usyd.edu.au