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Robert Enzerink
12-07-1996, 03:01 PM
Hello BioMechers,

We have been doing research on syringe needle designs, particularly for
intramuscular injections. The only standards which we have been able to
locate are related to sharps disposal containers. However,we have had
difficulty finding standards or published data on the loads which are
normally expected to puncture human skin, insert the syringe needle through
fascia and into muscle.

Secondly, is there a non-human test method for quantitative sensory
evaluation of injections? A reasonable mechanical indicator which is
correlated to injection pain would be very useful.

On a related topic, we would be very interested to hear of any other research
which was done which identified a good analog for skin for these puncture
tests. We have tried a number of materials, including poultry and swine
skin, latex and latex-composites, and lambskin. None of these seem to model
the elasticity and toughness of human skin very well and can only be used in
a comparative fashion.

If anyone has information related to:
1. Needle puncture force in human tissue;
2. A model for sensory evaluation;
3. A reasonable in vitro analog for human intramuscular injections,

we would be grateful to hear of this work. Thank you kindly.

Robert-Jan Enzerink
Hayes Medical Consulting
819 Striker Ave, Ste.10
Sacramento, CA 95834
FAX: 916-646-5432
e-mail: HMC@psyber.com