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John Cantrell
05-14-1997, 12:39 AM
Thanks for everyone's responses on my query concerning shock absorption
of the heel. Here is my query, followed by references suggested to me:

I'm working on research dealing with shock absorption in leaping
animals, particularly in the shock absorbing properties of the pads on
the soles of their feet. Does anyone know of ANY research that deals at
all with shock absorption in foot pads of humans or animals? Of
particular interest would be estimates of how much foot pads contribute
to attenuating stresses due to foot-floor (or foot-tree, in the case of
some leaping animals) contact forces.
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The following references were recommended to me:
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Aerts, Ker, De Clercq, Isley, & McN. Alexander (1995). The mechanical
properties of the human heel pad: a paradox resolved. Journal of
Biomechanics, 28:1, pp1299-1308
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Noe et al.(1993) Role of the calcaneal heel
pad and polymeric shock absorbers in attenuation of heel strike impact.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering.15,23-26.
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"Elastic Mechanisms of Animal Movement" by
R. McNeill Alexander (1988) isbn 0 521 341604.
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Meglan, D. A. (1992) Enhanced Analysis of Human Locomotion. Ph.D.
Dissertation, Ohio State University.
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Meglan, D. A., N. Berme (1991) A 3D Passive Mechanical Model of the
Human Foot for Use in Locomotion Synthesis, Second North American Congress
of Biomechanics, Chicago.
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Alexander, R. McN., Bennett, M.B. and Ker, R.F. (1986). Mechanical
properties and function of the paw pads of some mammals.
Journal of Zoology 209: 405-419.
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Alexander, R. McN. (1990). The lessons from animal studies. In P.R.
Cavanagh (Ed.), Biomechanics of Distance Running (pp.187-
201). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.
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Cavanagh, P.R., Valiant, G.A. and Misevich, K.W. (1984). Biological
aspects of modeling shoe/foot interaction during running. In
E.C. Frederick (Ed.), Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces: Their
Biomechanical Properties (pp. 24-46). Champaign, IL: Human
Kinetics Publishers.
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Jorgensen, U. : Achillodynia and loss of
heel pad shock absorbency. Am J Sports med. 1985 (13(2)) 128 - 132.
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Jorgensen, U. and Ekstrand, J. (1988). Significance of heel pad
conefinement for the shock absorption at heel strike.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 9: 468-473.
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Jorgensen, U. and Bojsen-Moller, F. (1989). Shock absorbancy of
factors in the shoe/heel interaction - with special focus on role
of the heel pad. Foot and Ankle 9(5): 294-299.
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Miller, B.J., Pate, R.R. and Burgess, W. (1988). Foot impact force and
intravascular hemolysis during distance running. International
Journal of Sports Medicine 9(1): 56-60.
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Paul, I.L., Munro, M.B., Abernethy, P.J., Simon, S.R., Radin, E.L.
and Rose, R.M. (1978). Musculo-skeletal shock absorption:
Relative contribution of bone and soft tissues at various
frequencies. Journal of Biomechanics 11: 237-239.
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Perry, J. (1983). Anatomy and biomechanics of the hindfoot. Clinical
Orthopaedics and Related Research 177: 9-15.
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Simon, S.R., Paul, I.L., Mansour, J., Munro, M., Abernethy, P.J. and
Radin, E.L. (1981). Peak dynamic force in human gait. Journal
of Biomechanics 14(12):817-822.
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- Aerts & De Clercq (1993) J. Sports Sci. 11 : 449-461
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- Aerts, Ker, De Clercq, Ilsley & Alexander (1995) J. Biomechanics 28 :
1299-1308.
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- Aerts, Ker, De Clercq & Ilsley (1996) J. Anat., 188 : 417-423.
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- Bennett & Ker (1990) J. Anat., 171 : 131-138.
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- De Clercq, Aerts & Kunnen (1994) J. Biomechanics 27 : 1213-1222.
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- Ker, Bennett, Alexander & Kester (1989) Proc.Instn.Mech.Engrs. 203 :
191-196
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- Kinoshita, Ogawa, Kuzuhara & Ikuta (1993) Int. J. Sports Med., 14 :
312-319.
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Many of the authors listed above volunteered to correspond with me about
my research. Thanks to all!

John
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Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
Duke University
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