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View Full Version : Summere: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?



Sverdlik Ariel
07-27-1997, 10:09 PM
Hello All

Here is a summery of the replies on my question on gripping dog tendons in
tensile testing , by a knot.

------------------------------------------------
The original message:

> Dear All
>
> I plan to do in-vitro tensile loading on tendons.
> The tendons I am using are digital dog tendons.
> I plan to grip the tendons by making a knot at the end of the tendon and
> put the tendon through a conic hole so the knot will be stuck inside the
> conic hole.
> The knot should also "lock" the internal structure of the tendon.
> In relation with the setting I have presented above, I have two
> questions:
>
> 1) Form the literature search I did, I couldn't find any source in which
> tensile loading experiments were done on digital tendons, neither from
> dogs or any other animal.
> Could someone give me any reason why not to use these tendons?
>
> 2) I also didn't find any reference in which the tendon was tied in a
> knot.
> Could someone give me a reason why not to use this method? (aside from
> the possibility of rupture of the tendon in the area of the knot because
> of breakdown of fibbers) .
>
> I'll be very grateful to get any comment on this subject.
> Arik
> -----------------------------
> bmesver@tx.technion.ac.il
>
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The answers:

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On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Tim Foutz wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 1997 13:39:42 -0400
> From: Tim Foutz
> To: BIOMCH-L@NIC.SURFNET.NL
> Newsgroups: bit.listserv.biomch-l
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?
>
> look at Van Walsum's work with the digital tendon of chickens. He had an
> interesting procedure.
>
>
> On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Ariel wrote:
>
> > Dear All
> >
> > I plan to do in-vitro tensile loading on tendons.
> > The tendons I am using are digital dog tendons.
> > I plan to grip the tendons by making a knot at the end of the tendon and
> > put the tendon through a conic hole so the knot will be stuck inside the
> > conic hole.
> > The knot should also "lock" the internal structure of the tendon.
> > In relation with the setting I have presented above, I have two
> > questions:
> >
> > 1) Form the literature search I did, I couldn't find any source in which
> > tensile loading experiments were done on digital tendons, neither from
> > dogs or any other animal.
> > Could someone give me any reason why not to use these tendons?
> >
> > 2) I also didn't find any reference in which the tendon was tied in a
> > knot.
> > Could someone give me a reason why not to use this method? (aside from
> > the possibility of rupture of the tendon in the area of the knot because
> > of breakdown of fibbers) .
> >
> > I'll be very grateful to get any comment on this subject.
> > Arik
> > -----------------------------
> > bmesver@tx.technion.ac.il
> >
> > -------------------------------------------------------------------
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> > -------------------------------------------------------------------
> >
>
> -------------------------------------------------------------------
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>

On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Steve Katz wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 1997 10:39:37 -0700
> From: Steve Katz
> To: bmesver@techunix.technion.ac.il
> Subject: gripping tendons -
>
>
>
> Ariel
>
> I have every confidence that you have already received adequate replies to
> your e-mail - but in the event you have not I figured I would reply.
>
> The alternative to knots is to freeze the end of the test piece that you are
> gripping. Take a large grip - which is to say a big hunk of metal that has
> a significant thermal inertia and grip the test piece and dunk the entire
> gripped end into liquid N2. The tendon will get hard and will be held onto
> more effectively by the grips. One can also obtain grips that are machined
> to allow a cooling fluid to circulate through the grip for the duration of
> the testing protocol - but that costs more money.
>
> Among the troubles with knots is that they create a stress concentration
> that is in addition to any stress concentration that arises simply from
> gripping. This stress concentration is a guarenteed failure point - which
> of course makes the rest of the test hard to interprit.
>
> I cant think of a reference to the literature off the top of my head - but
> surely McNeil Alexander pulled on dog tendon? No? Perhaps not digital
> tendon, but surely achillies, and I suspect digital as well.
>
> Cheers
> Steve Katz
>

On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Julie A. Martin wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 1997 15:01:46 -0400 (EDT)
> From: "Julie A. Martin"
> To: Ariel
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?
>
> SL-Y Woo has done work with digital flexor tendons of swine...sometime
> around 1982. I'll check the reference and my files for others.
>
> Julie Martin
> UVM
>

On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Ton van den Bogert wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 97 13:27:04 MDT
> From: Ton van den Bogert
> To: bmesver@techunix.technion.ac.il
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?
>
> >1) Form the literature search I did, I couldn't find any source in which
> >tensile loading experiments were done on digital tendons, neither from
> >dogs or any other animal.
> >Could someone give me any reason why not to use these tendons?
>
> Much work has been done on digital tendons of the horse. Here's
> a recent reference:
>
> Jansen MO & Savelberg HHCM (1994) Equine Vet J 17:57-60
>
> >2) I also didn't find any reference in which the tendon was tied in a
> >knot.
> >Could someone give me a reason why not to use this method? (aside from
> >the possibility of rupture of the tendon in the area of the knot because
> >of breakdown of fibbers) .
>
> Equine tendons are so thick that the knot will always slip. For
> dog tendons your technique may work, though. A widely used
> technique is the 'cryo-jaw', where the end of the tendon is
> frozen in a clamp (Riemersma & Schamhardt,
> J. Biomech. 15:619-620, 1982). I know that this clamp was also
> used by McNeill Alexander's group in Leeds for tendons of other
> animals.
>
> The clamping procedure becomes critical when you are measuring
> strain close to the clamp. The clamp (or knot, for that matter)
> may make the strain distribution very non-uniform. When
> measuring strain in individual fibre bundles (e.g. with a
> mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge), this effect may persist even
> at large distances from the clamp. Surface strains are not as
> sensitive to clamping.
>
> -- Ton van den Bogert
> The University of Calgary
>
>
>

On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, M.H. SHEREBRIN wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 97 16:44:32 EDT
> From: "M.H. SHEREBRIN"
> To: bmesver@techunix.technion.ac.il
> Cc: ve3fhx@uwovax.uwo.ca
> Subject: tendon testing
>
> Hi Arik,
>
> I have worked with a plastic surgeon on the tendons of chicken foot.
>
> We have done a fair bit of testing intact and healing severed fibres.
>
> Our paper is:
>
> The effects of ultrasound treatment on flexor tendon healing
> in the chicken limb.
>
> BS Gan S Huys MH Sherebrin CG Scilley
>
> Journal of Hand Surgery (British and European Volume, 1995) 20B: 6: 809-814.
>
> I am still working on the analysis for a more technical journal like
> J. Biomech. but have just retired and am soon moving to Karmiel, just down
> the road from the Technion. I did a sabbatical in the Biophysics/physiology
> dept in 1976/77.
>
> I have been corresponding with Dan Adam recently to try and make
> connections there.
>
> Best of luck in your research and perhaps we can meet in October.
>
> Shalom,
>
> Marvin Sherebrin
>
> Professor Emeritus
>
> M. H. Sherebrin, Associate Professor
> Dept. of Medical Biophysics Phone (519) 679 2111 ext 6549
> Univ. of Western Ontario Dept phone (519) 661 3053
> London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1 Dept fax (519) 661 2123
>
> email: sherebrin@uwovax.uwo.ca
>
>
>

On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Julie A. Martin wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 1997 16:52:53 -0400 (EDT)
> From: "Julie A. Martin"
> To: Ariel
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?
>
> Here's the reference for Woo et al's paper:
>
> Woo SL-Y, Gomez MA, Woo Y-K, Akeson WH: Mechanical properties of tendons
> and ligaments [2 parts]. Biorheology, 19: 397-408, 1982.
>
> Where doing some tensile testing of rabbit MCLs and Achilles tendons. For
> the tendon tests we're going to use a freeze clamping technique. Have you
> explored this at all?
>
> Julie M.
>

On Mon, 14 Jul 1997, Santosh Zachariah wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 97 15:00:11 -0700
> From: Santosh Zachariah
> To: bmesver@techunix.technion.ac.il
> Subject: Gripping tendons
>
> Arik,
>
> I have not used the knot-in-a-hole technique you speak off,
> but am very sceptical that you can get an accurate gauge-length
> (reference configuration) from such a setup. This in turn could
> introduce a significant error on your strain estimates, depending
> on how you will measure strain.
>
> -- Santosh Zachariah --
>
> Research Associate, Dept. of Bioengineering
> Univ. of Washington, Box 352255, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
> ph: (206) 685-3488, fax: (206) 543-6124
> zach@limbs.bioeng.washington.edu
>


On Mon, 14 Jul 1997 BEARDC@pfizer.com wrote:
>
> Date: Mon, 14 Jul 1997 20:46:11 -0400
> From: BEARDC@pfizer.com
> To: " - (052)bmesver(a)tx.technion.ac.il"
>
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole
>
> >2) I also didn't find any reference in which the tendon was tied in a
> >knot.
> >Could someone give me a reason why not to use this method? (aside
> >from the possibility of rupture of the tendon in the area of the knot
> >because of breakdown of fibbers) .
>
> Arik,
>
> In regard to your second question,I have tested goat toe flexor
> tendons using knots in the ends. I have found that in most cases, the
> specimen either fails at the knot rather than in a midsubstance area,
> or else the knot unravels due to the slipperyness of the specimen.
> Suturing or freezing the knot does help slippage, but adds to the
> stress concentration and therefore does not work consistently.
>
> Sincerely yours,
>
> Christina L. Beardsley
> Research Assistant
> Howmedica Inc.
>

On Tue, 15 Jul 1997, Serena S. Chan Saw wrote:
>
> Date: Tue, 15 Jul 1997 08:40:46 -0400
> From: "Serena S. Chan Saw"
> To: bmesver@techunix.technion.ac.il
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?
>
> >1) Form the literature search I did, I couldn't find any source in which
> >tensile loading experiments were done on digital tendons, neither from
> >dogs or any other animal.
> >Could someone give me any reason why not to use these tendons?
>
> I don't know where you were looking but you might want to try looking
> again. There has been tons of work on tensile loading on digital tendons,
> although, the common term is flexor tendons. It has at least been done in
> chickens, dogs and humans. This has been an extensively studied tendon. A
> sample of references include:
>
> 1) Carlson GD, Botte MJ, Josephs MS, Newton PO, Davis JLW and Woo
> SL-Y: Morphologic and biomechanical comparison of tendons used as free
> grafts. Journal of Hand Surgery, 18A(1):76-82, 1993.
>
> 2) Feehan LM and Geauchene JG: Early tensile properties of healing
> chicken flexor tendons: Early controlle dpassive motion versus
> postoperative immobilization. Journal of Hand Surgery, 15A(1):63-68, 1990.
>
> 3) Gelberman RH, Woo SL-Y, Lothringer K, Akeson WH and Amiel D:
> Effects of early intermittent passive mobilization on healing canine flexor
> tendons. Journal of Hand Surgery, 7(2):170-175, 1982.
>
> 4) Horii E, Lin GT, Cooney WP, Linscheid RL and An KN: Comparative
> flexor tendon excursion after passive mobilization: An in vitro study.
> Journal of Hand Surgery, 17A:559-566, 1992.
>
> 5) Mashadi ZB and Amis AA: Variation of holding strength of synthetic
> absorbable flexor tendon sutures with time. Journal of Hand Surgery,
> 17B(3):278-281, 1992.
>
> 6) Mason ML and Allen HS: The rate of healing of tendons: Experimental
> study of tensile strength. Annals Of Surg., 113:424-459, 1941.
>
> 7) McCarthy DM, Tramaglini DM, Chan SS, Schmidt CC, Sotereanos DG and
> Herndon JH: Effect of partial laceration on the structural properties of
> the canine FDP tendon: An In Vitro Study. Journal of Hand Surgery,
> 20A:795-800, 1995.
>
> 8) McDowell CL and Snyder DM: Tendon healing: An experimental model in
> the dog. J. Hand Surg., 2(2):122-126, 1977.
>
> 9) Noguchi M, Seiler JG, Gelberman RH, Sofranko RS and Woo SL-Y: In
> vitro biomechanical analysis of suture methods for flexor tendon repair.
> Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 11(4):603-611, 1993.
>
> 10) Okuda Y, Gorski JP, An K-N and Amadio PC: Biochemical,
> histological, and biomechanical analyses of canine tendon. Journal of
> Orthopaedic Research, 5(1):60-68, 1987.
>
> 11) Ollinger H, Wray RC and Weeks PM: Effects of suture on tensile
> strength gain of partially and completely severed tendons. Surgical Forum.,
> 26:63-64, 1975.
>
> 12) Peterson W: Effect of Pulley Excision on Flexor tendon
> Biomechanics. Journal of Orthopedic Research, 4(#1):pp. 96-101, 1986.
>
> 13) Woo SL-Y, Gelberman RH, Cobb NG, Amiel D, Lothringer K and Akeson
> WH: The importance of controlled passive mobilization on flexor tendon
> healing. Acta Orthopedica Scandinavia, 52:615-622, 1981.
>
> 14) Wray RC, Ollinger H and Weeks PM: Effects of mobilization on
> tensile strength of partial tendon lacerations. Surgical Forum, 26:557-558,
> 1975.
>
> You might want to try looking at these references and seeing what they
> reference as well. Good journals to look in inlcude Journal of Hand
> Surgery and Journal of Orthopaedic Research.
>
> >2) I also didn't find any reference in which the tendon was tied in a
> >knot.
> >Could someone give me a reason why not to use this method? (aside from
> >the possibility of rupture of the tendon in the area of the knot because
> >of breakdown of fibbers) .
>
> If you look at the above references you will find ways to tensile test that
> do NOT include tying a knot. Clamps can be constructed that will firmly
> grasp a tendon to perform a tensile test and achieve ultimate loads of over
> 500 N while failing in the midsubstance.
>
> -Serena Chan Saw
>
>

On Wed, 16 Jul 1997, Liduin Meershoek wrote:
>
> Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 08:22:40 +0200
> From: Liduin Meershoek
> To: bmesver@techunix.technion.ac.il
> Subject: Re: Gripping digital dog tendons with a knot in a conic hole?
>
> Dear Arik,
>
> Digital tendon testing was done repeatedly on horse tendons. I have included
> some references. By the way, I don't know how your search the literature but
> a lot of the veterinarian research is not included in medline.
>
> A few months ago there was a question on clamping of tendons or ligaments.
> There were some references on fixation, you should search the Biomech-L
> archives for this. Knotting the tendon might 'lock' the internal structure
> of the tendon in different way compared to normal loading. I don't know
> whether this gives a large influence on the results.
>
> MO Jansen & HHCM Savelberg. Stress and strain of equine tendons of the
> forelimb at failure. Equine Vet J suppl 17;1994:57-60
>
> CK Becker, HHCM Savelberg & A Barneveld. In vitro mechanical properties of
> the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in relation to age.
> Equine Vet J 26;1994, 454-459.
>
> DJ Riemersma & HC Schamhardt. In vitro mechanical properties of equine
> tendons in relation to cross sectional area and collagen contant. Res Vet S
> 39;1985 263-270
>
> N Crevier, P Pourcelot JM Denoix, D Geider, C Bortolussi, X Ribot & M Sanaa.
> Segmental variations of in vitro mechanical properties in equine superficial
> digital flexor tendons. Am J Vet Res 57;1996, 1111-1117
>
> FK Lochnet, DW Milne, EJ Mills & JJ Groom. In vivo and in vitro measurements
> of tendon strain in the horse. Am J Vet Res 41, 1980, 1929-1938.
>