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P. Stephenson
09-03-1997, 11:40 PM
Dear All,

I would like to thank everyone who replied to my request for
information regarding the mechanical properties of human bone. The
references suggested have provided me with sufficient information to
continue with my finite element analysis. There was a typing error
in the original posting as I was noconsidering bone to be an
isotropic material, I was of course considering bone to be
ANISOTROPIC.


A summary of the replies received are provided below along with a
reminder of the original posting.

Cheers

Paul.

*********************Original Posting************************

Dear All,

I am desperate to find some references that will give me the
mechanical properties of the cortical bone in the human femur.
This information is required in order to carry out a finite element
analysis.

The most relevant parameters are Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and
shear modulus. As we are regarding bone as an isotropic material it
is necessary to determine these values in three mutually orthogonal
co-ordinate directions.

All values and references will be gratefully accepted. A summary of
replies will be posted as and when the replies cease to roll in.

Thanking you in advance.

Paul.

********************Collective Replies*************************

From: "Smit, Th.H."
To: "'P. STEPHENSON'"
Subject: RE: Bone
properties Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 11:03:04 +0200

Dear Paul,

it is really not very difficult to find plenty of information on the
material properties of cortical bone in the literature. I would
suggest a quick MEDLINE analysis with the relevant keywords. Some
authors who could be of interest to you include Burstein, Currey,
Cowin, Evans, Frankel and Yamada. Most of their work on the material
properties of bone is more than 20 years old. Succes.

Theo Smit

__________________________________________________ ____________

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 97 18:12:33 +0900
To: mrpps@leeds.ac.uk
From: hayashi@mother.me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp (HAYASHI
kozaburo) Subject: Re: Bone Properties

Dear Dr. Stephenson:

I suggest you to refer to "Data Book on Mechanical Properties of
Living Cells, Tissues, and Organs" which was edited by H. Abe, K.
Hayashi, and M. Sato and published from Springer-Verlag in 1996.
Almost all data of biological materials including bone which appeared
in literature for the past 20 years are presented in graphs and tables
(one type of data per page) arranged in an easily accessible manner,
along with details of the origin of the material and the experimental
method.

Sincerely yours,

Kozaburo Hayashi

__________________________________________________ __

From: "Julie Matthews"
To:
Subject: properties of bone
Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 12:51:23 +0200

Paul,

Check out Biomechanics: Mechanical properties of living tissue by YC
Young, I seem to remember he had what you are looking for.

Julie
----------------------------------------------------------------------
---- Julie Matthews. M.Sc Bioengineer The Institute for Applied
Biotechnology Medicinaregatan 8B 413 46 Göteborg, Sweden Phone 46
(0)31-416337 or 411241 Fax 46 (0)31-414560 email
Bioteknologen@swipnet.se

__________________________________________________ ___

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 12:56:38 +0200
From: Ulrich Hartmann
Organization: Max-Planck-Institut fuer neuropsychologische
Forschung To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk Subject:
mechanical properties

Dear P. STEPHENSON,

I know it's hard to find mechanical properties of "human material". I
have some values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for the human
skull. But I am not sure if they are reliable. Here they are:

E of the skull : 6.5 10^6 kPa
Poisson : 0.2(2)
density : 1412 kg/m^3

These values have been published in the paper:

Finite element modeling of head impact:
The second decade (1993) by A.A.H.J Sauren and M.H.A. Claessens
presented at IRCOBI Conference 1993

I hope this helps a little.
Good luck!
--
Ulrich Hartmann,
Max-Planck-Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
Inselstrasse 22-26, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
E-mail: hartmann@cns.mpg.de, Phone : +49-341-9940-213

__________________________________________________ __

From: Leadbetter Rhona
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
Subject: RE: Bone
properties Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 12:32:00 +0100

Paul,

You may want to look up the following references;

Abendschein & Hyatt '70
Ashman et al '84
Boeree et al '93
Burstein et al '76 - JBJS, Vol 58A, No 1, pp. 82-86
Currey & Butler '75 -
Evans & Lebow '52
Keller et al '90 - J of Orthop Res, 8(4), pp. 592-603
Kimura & Amtmann '84
Ko '53
Lappi et al '79
Reilly & Burstein '75 - J Biomech, Vol 8, pp. 393-405
Sedlin '65
Smith & Smith '76
Yamada '70 Strength of Biological Materials, ed. Evans, FG, Williams &
Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA Yokoo '52 - J Kyoto Pref Med Univ, No 51,
pp. 291-313


Sorry I don't have more details on the others. Good luck.

Rhona Leadbetter.

__________________________________________________

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 22:03:41 +1000
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
From: Arthur Brandwood
Subject: Re: Bone Properties

Paul,

These figures are well known and have been in the literature a long
time. Of course there's a certain amount of biological variation to
contend with.

Did you really mean ISOTROPIC? Cortical bone is anything but... The
estimates of all the elastic constants for anisotropic bone have been
published. You might want to go back about 15-20 years and look for
papers by W Bonfield et al. in J. Mat. Sci and other journals for the
definitive work on bone fracture mechanics and elasticity.
Alternatively any decent Biomechanics textbook will give some guide to
the average values. Look for works by Alexander (Prof of Zoology at
Leeds or John Currey (Prof of Biology at York).

Try the University library. The papers were there when I did my Ph.D
at leeds in 1983... ;-)

Arthur Brandwood

-------------------------------------------------------------------
Arthur Brandwood PhD Arthur.Brandwood@hcn.net.au
Head, Biomaterials & Engineering TGA Laboratories Branch Therapeutic
Goods Administration Tel: +61 (0)6 232 8694 PO Box 100,
Woden, ACT 2606, Australia Fax: +61 (0)6 232 8555

__________________________________________________ ___

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 11:07:18 -0100
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
From: bourauel@uni-bonn.de (Christoph Bourauel) Subject:
Re: Bone properties

Dear Paul,

you should check for

'Data Book on Mechanical Properties of Living Cells, Tissues, and
Organs'.

Eds.: Abe, Hayashi, Sato, Spinger, 1996 (ISBN 4-431-70175-3).

I don't know whether you can find data on anisotropic behaviour but I
hope this helps nevertheless.

Greetings

Christoph

************************************************** ********************
**** * Dr.rer.nat. Christoph Bourauel | Tel.: ++49 228 287 2332
/ 2388 * * Abteilungsleiter Experimentelle KFO | Fax: ++49
228 287 2444 * * Poliklinik f. KFO |
* * Universitaet Bonn |
umz400@ibm.rhrz.uni-bonn.de * * Welschnonnenstr. 17
| or: bourauel@uni-bonn.de * * 53111 Bonn
| *
************************************************** ********************
****

__________________________________________________ _____

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 12:32:08 +0000
From: Rakotomanana
Organization: Biomedical Engineering Laboratory To:
mrpps@leeds.ac.uk Subject: Bone


Hi,

See "Bone biomechanics" ed. S Cowin, 1989, Boca Raton

Good luck.
__________________________________________________ ________________
Lalaonirina RAKOTOMANANA Physics Department, 1015 Lausanne,
Switzerland mailto:Lalao.Rakotomanana@ipa.dp.epfl.ch
http://lgmwww.epfl.ch/staff/lalao/home.html
__________________________________________________ ________________

__________________________________________________ _________________

DATE SENT: TUE, 19 AUG 1997 10:33:55 -0400 (EDT)
FROM: DEAN INGLIS
TO: "P. STEPHENSON"
SUBJECT: RE: BONE PROPERTIES

DEAR PAUL:

I AM NOT SURE WHAT YOU MEAN WHEN YOU SAY "THREE MUTUALLY
ORTHOGONAL..." IF YOU ARE CONSIDERING BONE AS AN ISOTROPIC MATERIAL.
THERE ARE ONLY TWO INDEPENDENT ELASTIC CONSTANTS FOR ISOTROPIC
MATERIALS: ONE ELASTIC MODULUS (E) AND ONE POISSON'S RATIO (V), THE
SHEAR MODULUS IS GIVEN BY G=E/(2(1+V)). IN ANY EVENT, YOU WILL FIND A
GREAT DEAL OF INFORMATION ON CORTICAL BONE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN
LITERATURE SOURCES SUCH AS JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, JOURNAL OF
BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING, OR JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY.
TYPICALLY, RESEARCH ON ISOTROPIC PROPERTIES HAS FOCUSED ON DETERMINING
A BEST FIT POWER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN APPARENT DENSITY AND ELASTIC
MODULUS FROM MECHANICAL TESTS. AS A START, LOOK AT KELLER, T. S.,
"PREDICTING THE COMPRESSIVE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF BONE", J.
BIOMECHANICS, VOL. 27, NO. 9, PP. 1159-1168, 1994. ALSO, HUISKES, R.
AND CHAO, E. Y. S., "A SURVEY OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN ORTHOPEDIC
BIOMECHANICS: THE FIRST DECADE", J. BIOMECHANICS, VOL. 16, NO. 6, PP.
385-409, 1983, WILL GIVE YOU AN EXCELLENT OVERVIEW OF FINITE ELEMENT
ANALYSES APPLIED TO BONE. THE LITERATURE REVIEWS AT THE ENDS OF THESE
PAPERS SHOULD POINT YOU TO WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR.

GOOD LUCK

DEAN INGLIS
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
MCMASTER UNIVERSITY
HAMILTON, ONTARIO
CANADA

__________________________________________________ _______

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 11:26:35 -0500
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
From: "Kevin E. Healy" Subject:
Re: Bone Properties

Seek out Jonathan Black. He edited a text that should be out by now
on the material properties of biological tissue. I wrote a chapter on
dentin and enamel, but I have not seen the book published. Dr. Black
was once on the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania, in the
Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Good luck.

Kevin E. Healy, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Division of Biological Materials
Northwestern University
Ward Bldg. 10-116
311 E. Chicago Ave.
Chicago, IL 60611-3008

Telephone: (312) 503-4735
Facsimile: (312) 503-2440
e-mail: kehealy@nwu.edu

__________________________________________________

Date sent: Tue, 19 Aug 1997 17:43:40 -0500 (CDT)
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
From: "Susan Bloomfield Ph.D."
Subject: Re: File: "BIOMCH-L POSTINGS"


Paul: almost certainly you will find this information in Martin and
Burr book on cortical bone. Title is close to "Structure and
Mechanical Properties of Cortical Bone", published about 1990. Good
luck. Sue Bloomfield (of Texas A&M University, visiting Mayo Clinic)

__________________________________________________ __

Date sent: 20 Aug 97 13:47:50 +0800
Subject: Re: Bone Properties
From:
"hfitton@cyllene.uwa.edu.au" To:
"P. STEPHENSON"


try looking up the work of Neil Broome-this is exactly the type of
thing he was doing. Worked in Auckland New Zealand in the late
eighties. Cheers Helen
--------------------------------------------------------------- Dr J
Helen Fitton Research Fellow (09)3461530 (09)3461466 FAX (09)3821171
email hfitton@cyllene.uwa.edu.au Lions Eye Institute, Verdun Street,
Nedlands, Perth
--_|\
/ LIONS\
\*.--._/
v

---------------------------------------------------------------

__________________________________________________

From: "Rhona Phelps"
Organization: Industrial Research Limited
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 1997 08:39:27 GMT+1200
Subject: Re: Bone properties
Priority: normal

Dear Paul

I am a relativley new recruit to NZ, but a new collegue of mine
recently completed his PhD looking at the mechanics and material
properties of cancellous bone of the femoral head.

He established the isotropic properties by taking measurements in the
3 planes for bone cubes. If you would like to find out exactly what
he did and what his findings were, his name is Iain Anderson and you
can contact him at i.anderson@irl.cri.nz.

Regards
Rhona



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Rhona Phelps PhD Industrial Research
Ltd Research Engineer P.O.Box 2225
Engineering Dynamics Auckland Biomechanics
Group New Zealand

Email: r.phelps@irl.cri.nz
Tel: +64 9 3034116
Fax: +64 9 3070618

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

__________________________________________________-

From: "Chris Connor"
Organization: SST University of Teesside
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 1997 10:46:33 GMT
Subject: Re: Bone properties
Priority: normal

Hi Paul

No doubt you'll have received several replies by now, so I'm sorry if
these are repeats or not as useful as other replies. This isnt really
my area, as I am studying the nakle, and here at the Uni we have
carried out FE on the patella, ankle, metatarsals and lumbar
vertebrae. During the course of my work, I have come across several
papers that may be of some use to you, and you should find that there
have been a great deal of studies of the femur. eg.
valliapen,Svensson,Wood 1977 harris,Chao,Block,Weingarten (1978)
Rohlmann,bergmann,Kolbel (1979) etc. Some of the works I would
recommend in this field (although they might not include the exact
data you require they should point you to it) include: Dalstra M,
Huiskes R, van Erning. Development & validation of a 3D FE model of
the pelvic bone. Trans. ASME - biotechnology Vol 117 1995 August pp
272-278

Finite elements in biomechanics. Ed. Gallagher RH,Simon PC et al.
1982, J Wiley & sons.

Bone mechanics. S. Cowin. CRC Press 1989.

Sorry I couldn't be of more help, but if I come across any data I'll
pass it on asap. There's plenty out there so you should have no
problems.

Best of luck,
pp 272-278





Chris Connor email: C.J.Connor@tees.ac.uk
School of Science & Technology Tel.: 01642 342494
University of Teesside Fax.: 01642 342401
Middlesbrough
Cleveland TS1 3BA
England
UK

_______________________________________________

From: Paul Smith
To: "'P. STEPHENSON'"
Subject: RE: Bone
properties Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 1997 09:33:42 -0230

Hi Paul,

I have been doing the same sort of work and have faced the same
problems. I am doing some materials testing in addition to my FE work
and I hope to use some of the data in my model. Specificly I have
mechanically tested an intact femur and subsequently sl

I would appreciate some more details on your work. It sounds similar
to what I am doing. Maybe we can be of assistance to each other.

Sincerely,
Paul Smith

Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 1997 09:14:23 -0400
From: Jonathan Black
To: mrpps@SOUTH-01.NOVELL.LEEDS.AC.UK
Subject: Re: Bone Properties

Look for the soon to be published:

Black/Hastings: Handbook of Biomaterial Properties (Chapman + Hall)
(planned for early 1998).

Until then, contact John Curry at York University (John Currey
) the super maven of bone properties.

----Jonathan Black

IMN Biomaterials
409 Dorothy Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406

_______________________________________________

Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 1997 11:12:36 -0300 (ADT)
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
From: smitht@unb.ca (Tim Smith)
Subject: bones

Hi,

run a literature search using the name Ashman, (Richard). J.
Biomechanics, around '85-86 I think. Ultrasonics base modulus, nice
review of earlier work/properties. bye, Tim Smith


______________________________________________

Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 1997 15:51:07 -0500
From: Shreefal Mehta
To: mrpps@SOUTH-01.NOVELL.LEEDS.AC.UK
Subject: Bone Properties -Reply



Dear All,

The most relevant parameters are Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and
shear modulus. As we are regarding bone as an isotropic material it
is necessary to determine these values in three mutually orthogonal
co-ordinate directions


Paul,

Here is a reference thatcontains stiffness matrix values: (you can
convert the stiffness values into technical constants such as moduli -
Young's and shear and also Poisson's ratios by a simple matrix
inversion and then extraction...).

Katz JL, Meunier, A. J Biomech 20:1063-1070

Or here are some technical constants taken from Reilly and Burstein, J
Biomech, 8:393

E long axis = 17GPa (3 is along long axis and 1 is transverse)
E trsv axis = 11.5 GPa
G torsion around long axis = 3.3 GPa
Poisson's ratios in long axis loading = 0.46 and
Poisson's ratios in trsv axis loading = 0.58

There are many other references available in Bone Mechanics edited by
Cowin, CRC press.

Good luck.

P.S. You should also take heed of a paper in J Biomech recently which
described the dangers of ignoring the anisotropy of the bone
properties while using FEM models... J Biomech 29:261-269

Shreefal Mehta
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Shreefal Mehta, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor,

Dept of Radiology -9071,
Univ of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
5323 Harry Hines Blvd.,
Dallas, TX 75235-9071

Phone: (214)-648-2397
Fax: (214)-648-7513
Email: smehta@mednet.swmed.edu

Check it out:
http://www.swmed.edu/home_pages/ucrlab/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

______________________________________________

Date sent: Wed, 20 Aug 97 21:46:38 UT
From: "Andrew Hart"
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
Subject: RE: Bone properties

Hi,

You could try using the values of 24,100 MPa. for E and 0.28 for the
poissons ratio. Shear mod can easily be derived from these two.

Regards,

Dr. A. Hart

__________________________________________________

From: "Chris Connor"
Organization: SST University of Teesside
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
Date sent: Thu, 21 Aug 1997 16:04:21 GMT
Subject: Re: Bone properties - again
Priority: normal

Hello again Paul

Here's another reference that I have fond since my last message.
I don't have the paper in question, but by its title it should prove
very useful to you and should include something on properties.

Three dimensional shape reconstruction and FE analysis of the femur
before & after the cementless type of total hip replacement. Kang YK,
Park HC, Youm Y, Lee IK, Ann MH, Ihn JC J. Biomed Eng 1993 Nov. 15(6)
pp 497-504.

Just out of interest, as I have been working on this field (FE) for
the past 18 months, what kind of analysis do you intend to perform??
Using what package ?? How did you build your model and how accurate is
it??

Regards,
Chris Connor email: C.J.Connor@tees.ac.uk
School of Science & Technology Tel.: 01642 342494
University of Teesside Fax.: 01642 342401
Middlesbrough
Cleveland TS1 3BA
England
UK

______________________________________________

Date sent: Thu, 21 Aug 1997 20:48:35 -0400
Send reply to: "Dr. Tyler A. Kress"
From: "Dr. Tyler A. Kress"
Subject: Re: Bone properties
To: BIOMCH-L@NIC.SURFNET.NL

Check authors:

1) Yamada,
2) Evans, and
3) Cohen (CRC on Bone Mechanics)

Good luck.

Tyler A. Kress, Ph.D.
The University of Tennessee
153 Alumni Memorial Building
Knoxville, TN 37996-1506
Phone: (423) 974-3333
Fax: (423) 974-0588

______________________________________________


To: mrpps@leeds.ac.uk
Date sent: Wed, 27 Aug 1997 13:06:52 +0100
Subject: bone properties
Priority: normal

Paul,
re Biomech-L request for information on bone properties:
Try a search on A.Hamer and myself, over the last few years.
We published some info. on bone strength.

Rob Strachan
Medical Physics
Royal Hallamshire Hospital
Sheffield

J.R.Strachan@sheffield.ac.uk

________________________________________________

Date sent: Wed, 27 Aug 1997 19:34:30 -0300
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
From: Pablo
Subject: desesperate answer

Amigo Paul

El módulo de elasticidad de los huesos,(es un material
anisotropo que),varía fuertemente de la zona
cortical a la zona esponjosa.
Los valores que podemos reportar para huesos largos (femur) en
ZONA CORTICAL, obtenidos por ensayor uniaxiales son :

Módulo = 16000 MPa (tensión)
Módulo = 9000 MPa (compresión)
Módulo = 6000 MPa (Shear)
mu = 0,3 ( Poisson's ratio)


Para huesos ESPONJOSOS, el valor del Módulo es aproximadamente
1/6 del CORTICAL.

Espero que esta información sea de utilidad para tu trabajo.
Afectuosamente

Ing. Francisco Ciccone
B I O M A T

Director

B I O M A T
Investigación en Biomateriales
Universidad Tecnologica Nacional
Facultad Regional La Plata
Calle 60 y 124 - cp.1900
La Plata - Argentina

E-Mail fciccone@frlp.utn.edu.ar

**********************End of Collective
Replies*************************