PDA

View Full Version : Composite Femur



P. Stephenson
04-06-1998, 11:05 PM
Dear all,

Thanks to everyone who replied to my posting.

It seems that the composite femur has substantial value in the
experimental lab. It provides high repeatability, and in a great
number of ways can approximate the mechanical behaviour of a fresh
femur. I will determine if a composite femur is truly useful for my
purposes as I plough my way through the many references you have
provided me with.

Cheers

Paul.


-------------------- Original posting ------------------------

Priority: normal
Date sent: Wed, 1 Apr 1998 14:13:09 GMT0BST
Send reply to: "P. STEPHENSON"
From: "P.
STEPHENSON" Organization:
University of Leeds Subject: Composite femur To:
BIOMCH-L@NIC.SURFNET.NL

I'm interested in the feasibility of carrying out a strain gauge
analysis on a composite femur. Can anyone direct me to a study that
details the validity of such experiments? Has anyone used composite
femora for stress/strain analyses? if so, were the results
acceptable?


All responses will be posted.


Thanks
Paul



************************************************** ****
Paul Stephenson
Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Research Unit
Research School of Medicine
University of Leeds
UNITED KINGDOM
e-mail:
************************************************** ****


-------------------- Collective replies ------------------------


Date sent: Thu, 2 Apr 1998 11:42:40 -0500 (EST)
From: Anthony Francisco
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
Subject: Re: Composite femur

Dear Paul,

I'd be interested to hear what other people have to say. I recently
did an study of impact loading on lower legs. We used cadaver
specimens and fiberglass composite specimens from Pacific Research
Labs. We measured strain on the posterior side of the tibia specimens
using a rosette strain gage. While strains were not equal between the
two (cadaver and composite), they were of the same magnitude and
reproducible. Please fill me in on any other enlightening responses.

Thanks, Tony Francisco

-------------------------------------------------------------

Date sent: Thu, 2 Apr 1998 10:10:48 +0200
To: mrpps@leeds.ac.uk
From: Emmanuel CORDIER
Subject: composite femur references

Dear Sir,

Here are some references about this topic
(taken from http://www.cineca.it/prometeo/stand_fem.htm
the Standardized Femur Project).

We have not yet done any work with theese bones,
but we plan to do this.


Beals N. Evaluation of a composite Sawbones femur model. Research
Report 1987 ML.87.25
Richards Medical Company Memphis, Tennessee


Cristofolini L., Cappello A., Viceconti M., Toni A., Giunti A. A
validation of synthetic femur models in relation with comparative
stress shielding studies of hip stems. 2nd World Congress of
Biomechanics
1994 ? Amsterdam


Cristofolini L., Viceconti M., Cappello A., Toni A. Mechanical
validation of whole bone composite femur models. Journal of
Biomechanics 1996 29.4 pp.525-535


Cristofolini L., Viceconti M., Toni A., Giunti A. Can composite femurs
replace cadaveric femurs in in- vitro testing? Transactions of the
19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials 1993
pp.125- Birmingham, Alabama


Hilado C.J. Glass reinforced epoxy systems. Technomic Publ. 1974
Westport, Connecticut


McNamara B.P., Cristofolini L., Toni A., Taylor D., Giunti A. Stress
shielding predicted using a composite material femur. 2nd World
Congress of Biomechanics 1994
Amsterdam


Szivek J.A., Weng M., Karpman R. Variability in the torsional and
bending response of a commercially available composite femur. Journal
of Applied Biomaterials 1990 1
pp.183-186

Hope this will help,

E. Cordier



__________________________________________________ ________________

(Dr.) Emmanuel CORDIER - 'Foot & Ankle group' head

Institut fuer Experimentelle Chirurgie
der Universitaet Ulm

Abteilung Unfallchirurgische Forschung
und Biomechanik

Helmholtzstrasse 14
89081 ULM
GERMANY

Tel.: +49 (0)731 502 3481 std. / +49 (0)731 502 2908 direct

Fax.: +49 (0)731 502 3498

cordier@sirius.medizin.uni-ulm.de
__________________________________________________ ________________


---------------------------------------------------------

Date sent: Wed, 1 Apr 98 07:29:16 EST
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
From: Jimmy McKale Subject:
Re: Composite femur

I would suggest contacting the company who makes the composite bones.
The name of the company is Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc. They
are located in Vashon, Washington, U.S.A. Their web address is
www.sawbones.com and their email address is info@sawbones.com. They
should be able to give you some references.

I have a 1997 catalog from this company, so if you need any more
information (phone number, mailing address, etc.) feel free to ask.

Jim McKale


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Jimmy McKale
Orthopaedic Biomechanics Lab
University of Kentucky
mckale@cbme.uky.edu

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Date sent: Wed, 1 Apr 1998 15:06:37 -0600 (CST)
From: "Kenneth R. St. John" Send
reply to: "Kenneth R. St. John" To:
"P. STEPHENSON" Subject:
Re: Composite femur


I believe Harry McKellop (USC - Los Angeles) did some work in this
area in the early '80's using the composite femur from "Sawbones" in
Vashon Island, OR. I also think researchers at Wright Dow Corning
(now Wright Manufacturing) in Memphis, TN were working with using
strain guaging of theses ame composite femora for mechanical testing.
Densil Miller at Sawbones (Pacific Research) should also be able to
help you.


************************************************** ******************
Kenneth R. St. John, Assistant Professor Voice: (601) 984-6199
Orthopaedic Research and Biomaterials Fax: (601) 984-6087
University of Mississippi Medical Center 2500 North State Street
Jackson, MS 39216-4505 Internet:
stjohn@umsmed.edu
************************************************** ******************

--------------------------------------------------------------------

To: "P. STEPHENSON"
From: cristofolini@tecno.ior.it (Luca Cristofolini)
Subject: Re: Composite femur Date sent: Wed, 1 Apr
1998 16:01:08 +0000


Dear Paul,

In the literature you will find all the information you need. Below
you will find a list of some of my pubblications. You can find more on
Medline. In the first one of the list you will find a review of the
literature that used composite femur models:

Cristofolini L, Viceconti M, Cappello A, Toni A. Mechanical validation
of whole bone composite femur models. J. Biomechanics 1996; 29:
525-535.

Cristofolini L. A critical analysis of stress shielding evaluation of
hip prostheses. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 1997; 27
(4&5): 409-483.

Viceconti M, Casali M, Massari B, Cristofolini L, Bassini S, Toni A.
The 'Standardized femur program'. Proposal for a reference geometry to
be used for the creation of finite element models of the femur. J.
Biomechanics 1996; 29: 1241.

Cristofolini L, McNamara BP, Freddi A, Viceconti M. In-vitro measured
strains in the loaded femur: quantification of experimental error. J.
of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design 1997; 32(3):193-200.

Cristofolini L, Viceconti M. Comparison of uniaxial and triaxial
rosette gauges for strain measurement in the femur. Experimental
Mechanics 1997; 37(3): 350-354.

Hope this helps. Regards.

Luca Cristofolini

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - Luca Cristofolini Laboratorio di Tecnologia dei Materiali
tel. 39-(0)51-6366864 Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli
fax. 39-(0)51-6366863 Via di Barbiano 1/10
E-mail:luca@tecno.ior.it 40136 Bologna, Italy - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Experience is the name we give to our errors.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- -

----------------------------------------------------------------------
--

DATE SENT: THU, 2 APR 1998 17:25:18 +0100
TO: "P. STEPHENSON"
FROM: MARCO VICECONTI SUBJECT:
RE: COMPOSITE FEMUR

TAKE A LOOK TO THE STANDARDIZED FEMUR PAGE
HTTP://WWW.CINECA.IT/HOSTED/LTM-IOR/BACK2NET/
THERE YOU'LL FIND ALL OUR REFERENCES ON THIS.

MARCO




--------------------------------------------------
MARCO VICECONTI, PHD
(VICECONTI@TECNO.IOR.IT) LABORATORIO DI TECNOLOGIA DEI MATERIALI
TEL. 39-51-6366865 ISTITUTI ORTOPEDICI RIZZOLI
FAX. 39-51-6366863 VIA DI BARBIANO 1/10, 40136 -
BOLOGNA, ITALY

TIGER! TIGER! BURNING BRIGHT IN THE FOREST OF THE NIGHT,
WHAT IMMORTAL HAND OR EYE COULD FRAME THY FEARFUL SYMMETRY?
--------------------------------------------------
OPINIONS EXPRESSED HERE DO NOT NECESSARLY REFLECT THOSE OF MY EMPLOYER


---------------------------------------------------------------

From: NORMAN@cemr.wvu.edu
Organization: WVU Engineering & Mineral Resources
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
Date sent: Thu, 2 Apr 1998 7:57:48 EST
Subject: Re: Composite femur
Priority: normal

There have been several studies that have looked at composite femur.
Certainly strain gage analysis is possible with composites and I
believe you will find information on this in the publications. I think
the larger issue is the biological one.



************************************************** *****************

Tim Norman, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Interim Director
Musculoskeletal Research Center
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Orthopedics
P.O. Box 9196 West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506

304-293-3111 x 326 (Engineering)
304-293-1072 (Orthopedics)
304-293-7042 (fax)

Email: tnorman@wvu.edu
Home Page: http://www.cemr.wvu.edu/~norman

************************************************** *****************
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Date sent: Wed, 1 Apr 1998 15:30:15 +0200 (IST)
From: "Prof. Joe Mizrahi"
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
Subject: Re: Composite femur

Please check our following ref:
Mizrahi J, Hurlin RS, Taylor JK and Solomon L: Invetigation of load
transfer and optimum pin configuration in the internal fixation, by
Muller screws, of fractured femoral necks. Medical and Biological
Engineering and Computing, 18(3):319-325, 1980.

=====================================
Joseph Mizrahi , D.Sc., Professor
Dept. of Biomedical Eng. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa 32000, Israel Phone: +972-4-829 4128 Fax: +972-4-823 4131
e-mail: jm@biomed.technion.ac.il
http://biomed.technion.ac.il/mizrahi.htm or:
http://biomed.technion.ac.il/faculty/mizrahi/jm-pu.htm

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Date sent: Wed, 1 Apr 1998 15:30:15 +0200 (IST)
From: "Prof. Joe Mizrahi"
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
Subject: Re: Composite femur

Please check our following ref:
Mizrahi J, Hurlin RS, Taylor JK and Solomon L: Invetigation of load
transfer and optimum pin configuration in the internal fixation, by
Muller screws, of fractured femoral necks. Medical and Biological
Engineering and Computing, 18(3):319-325, 1980.

=====================================
Joseph Mizrahi , D.Sc., Professor
Dept. of Biomedical Eng. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa 32000, Israel Phone: +972-4-829 4128 Fax: +972-4-823 4131
e-mail: jm@biomed.technion.ac.il
http://biomed.technion.ac.il/mizrahi.htm or:
http://biomed.technion.ac.il/faculty/mizrahi/jm-pu.htm

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Date sent: Thu, 2 Apr 1998 14:18:18 +0100 (BST)
From: R J Eveleigh
Send reply to: R J Eveleigh
To: "P. STEPHENSON"
Subject: Re: Composite femur


Dear Paul,

I know of two studies in which composite femora have been usedvwith
strain gauges.

1) Otani, Whiteside and White 1993. Strain distribution in the
proximal femur with flexible composite and metallic femoral components
under axial and torsional loads. J Biomed Mater Res, 27, 575-585.

2) Cristofolini, Viceconti, Cappello and Toni 1996. Mechanical
validation of whole bone composite femur models.

I also strain gauged composite bones in my PhD study to look at mid
shaft femoral strains and how they were affected by different
intramedullary nails. My results were always repeatable unlike those
found by Otani et al.

I think that composite bones can be used successfully in strain gauge
studies, particularly when comparing 2 different implants. But it
should always be remebered that there will be some difference between
the strains measured on real bone and that the fibre orientation of
the composites might affect the results.

Good luck with your study,
Rebecca

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
Rebecca Eveleigh e-mail:ensrje@bath.ac.uk
Department of Mechanical Engineering tel:(01225) 826826 x5558
University of Bath fax:(01225) 826928
Bath BA2 7AY
England
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

--------------------------------------------------------------

From: "Rhona Phelps"
Organization: Industrial Research Limited
To: mrpps@south-01.novell.leeds.ac.uk
Date sent: Thu, 2 Apr 1998 08:26:47 GMT+1200
Subject: Re: Composite femur
Priority: normal

Dear Paul

I am sure you will recieve many replies, but perhaps not so many
from this far away. I have used the composite femora for strain
analysis and was quite happy with the performance. Your best best is
to visit the homepage of the standardised femur
(http://www.cineca.it/prometeo/stand_fem.htm) where they have
published a list of relevant published papers, looking at their
properties and comparing the performance with cadaveric bone etc.

The big advantage has to be the reproducibility (as well as the easy
of strain gauging).

Have fun!

Rhona

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Rhona Phelps PhD Industrial Research
Ltd Research Engineer P.O.Box 2225
Engineering Dynamics Auckland Biomechanics
Group New Zealand

Email: r.phelps@irl.cri.nz
Tel: +64 9 3034116
Fax: +64 9 3070618

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
---------------------------------------------------------------------