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Toni Arndt
05-03-1998, 09:17 PM
Dear All,

Following is a summary of responses to my recent request for information
pertaining to an animal model of the human second metatarsal.
Thank you again to those that responded.

1.Craig Nevin (cnevin@anat.uct.ac.za) has done extensive work comparing
human metatarsals with those of other primates in studies of bipedal gait.
He has unpublished data on the metatarsals and metacarpals of 14 man,
1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzee, 1 baboon measured specifically for
metatarsal perimeter-diameter.

He stated that bipedal metatarsals are designed for torsion rather than
bending: in human feet the first metatarsal has a diameter twice that of
the second (i.e. 4 x the strength). It is probably best to take
measurements from good anatomy sketches in textbooks after
appropriate scaling for metatarsal diameter. Metatarsal
data was surpringly consistent across the specimens measured.
The internal diameter is not important. Cross-sections of metatarsal
are consistent for rotational properties. Plane-sections seem very
irregular in comparison.

Gorilla, chimpanzee and baboon metatarsals apparently all show
considerable differences to those of humans. This is maybe quite
fortunate because there is a limited availability of these species in
Stockholm.

Craig also provided the following list of references:

HETHERINGTON VJ, CARNETT J, PATTERSON BA.
1989.
Motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
Journal of foot surgery, 28:13-19.

LATIMER B, LOVEJOY CO.
1990.
Metatarsophalangeal joints of Australopithecus afarensis.
American journal of physical anthropology, 83:13-23.

LATIMER B, LOVEJOY CO.
1990.
Hallucal tarsometatarsal joint in Australopithecus afarensis.
American journal of physical anthropology, 82:125-133.

KALIN PJ, HIRSCH BE.
1987.
The origins and functions of the interosseous muscles of the foot.
Journal of anatomy, 152:83-91.

GROSS TS, BUNCH RP.
1989.
A mechanical model of metatarsal stress fracture during distance running.
American journal of sports medicine, 17:669-674.

WYSS UP, COOKE TDV, YOSHIOKA Y, BRYANT JT, SIU D, MURPHY L.
1989
Alignment of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint: important criteria for a
new joint replacement.
Journal of biomedical engineering, 11:19-24.

STOKES IAF, HUTTON WC, STOTT JRR.
1979
Forces acting on the metatarsals during normal walking.
Journal of anatomy, 129:579-590.

COURTNEY AC, DAVIS BL, MANNING T, KAMBIC HE.
1997.
Effects of age, density, and geometry on the bending strength of human
metatarsals.
Foot & Ankle International, 18:216-221.


2. S. Van Sint Jan (sintjans@ulb.ac.be) offered for me to conduct the
study in Brussels where they have many fresh and embalmed human
specimens available.


3. Susan Stacpoole-Shea (spod@netconnect.com.au) suggested a literature
search on Athanasiou K.A. PhD.


4. Dieter Rosenbaum (diro@uni-muenster.de) suggested chicken leg bones
as they should have the appropriate dimensions and similar quality. The
major difference being the direction of loading even though both bones are
presumably primarily loaded under compression as it should be the case
in most long bones.


Thanks. I will probably follow Dieter's advice with some simple
geometric measurements (minor and major, internal and external diameters
at the midpoint of the bone and bone length) to quantify differences to
human metatarsal data available in the literature (eg. Gross, T.S. et al.,
1989. A mechanical model of metatarsal stress fracture during distance
running. Am. J. Sports Med. 17(5), 669-674).

Yours sincerely,

Toni.

Dr. Toni Arndt
Dept. Orthopedic Surgery K54
Huddinge University Hospital
141 86 Huddinge
Sweden

Tel: x46-8-585 87154
Fax: x46-8-711 4292

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